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Fedora
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Fedora
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The Fedora Project is an independent project to co-ordinate the development of Fedora Linux, operating with the vision of "a world where everyone benefits from free and open source software built by inclusive, welcoming, and open-minded communities."

Fedora Linux is a free operating system, developed and maintained by the Fedora project. The Fedora distribution has a reputation as being a FOSS distribution that focuses on innovation and close work with upstream Linux communities.

Mission

The project's mission statement is to create "an innovative platform for hardware, clouds, and containers that enables software developers and community members to build tailored solutions for their users".

Foundation

The project was founded in 2003 as a result of a merger between the Red Hat Linux (RHL) and Fedora Linux projects (at the time, Fedora Core). It is sponsored by Red Hat (an IBM subsidiary) primarily, but its employees make up only 35% of project contributors, and most of the over 2,000 contributors are unaffiliated members of the community..

Name
The name of Fedora derives from the original "Fedora Linux", a volunteer project that provided extra software for the Red Hat Linux distribution, and from the characteristic fedora hat used in Red Hat's "Shadowman" logo.
Logo
Fedora logo is a trademark by Red Hat Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
  • Red Hat Linux was split in 2003 into a community-supported but Red Hat-sponsored distribution called Fedora (Fedora is a Linux distribution developed by the Fedora Project), and a commercially supported distribution called Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Fedora Core
  • During its first 6 versions (1 to 6), the project was called Fedora Core, because it only included the most important packages, the central core or the heart of the operating system.
  • Fedora Core 1, was the first version of Fedora, released on 06/11/2003.
  • Fedora Core 2, was independent of development.
  • Fedora Core 6, codenamed Zod, was the last version of Fedora, released on 24/10/2006.
  • Before Fedora 7, Fedora was called Fedora Core after the name of one of the two main software repositories - Core and Extras. Fedora Core contained all the base packages that were required by the operating system, as well as other packages that were distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs, and was maintained only by Red Hat developers. Fedora Extras, the secondary repository that had been included since Fedora Core 3, was community-maintained and not distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs.

Fedora Linux
  • Upon the release of Fedora 7, the distinction between Fedora Core and Fedora Extras was eliminated.
  • Releases from Fedora 7 to the present have taken the name Fedora Linux.
  • Fedora Linux 7 was released on 31/05/2007.
  • The biggest difference between Fedora Core 6 and Fedora 7 was the merging of the Red Hat "Core" and Community "Extras" repositories, dropping "Core" from the name "Fedora Core," and the new build system put in place to manage those packages.
  • This release used entirely new build and compose tools that enabled the user to create fully customized Fedora distributions via a package named Revisor that could also include packages from any third-party provider.

Fedora Overview
Items Information & References
Based on Independent
Developer Fedora Project (established on 22/09/2003).
First release 06/11/2003, Fedora Core 1, based on Rehat Linux 9
First independent release 18/05/2004, Fedora Core 2
Origin International
Primary
Editions
  • Workstation: Fedora Workstation is Fedora’s official desktop edition.[3], with GNOME as default desktop environment
  • Server: Fedora Server its target usage is for servers. It includes the latest data center technologies. This edition does not come with a desktop environment, but one can be installed. From Fedora 28, Server Edition will deliver Fedora Modularity, adding support for alternative update streams for popular software such as Node.js and Go.[4]
  • IoT: Fedora IoT tailored to running on Internet of Things devices. It supports x86_64, aarch64 and armhfp processors.[5]
  • CoreOS: The successor of Fedora Atomic Host (Project Atomic) and Container Linux after Fedora 29, it provides a minimal image of Fedora Linux which includes just the bare essentials. It is meant for deployment in cloud computing.[6]
  • Cloud: Fedora Cloud provides few different images of Fedora Project which can be consumed in private and public cloud infrastructures.[7][8]
Innmutable
Editions
  • Silverblue: Fedora Silverblue is a variant of Fedora Workstation. It is an atomic desktop operating system. Every Silverblue installation is identical to every other installation of the same version, and it never changes as it is used (immutable design). Applications and containers are kept separate from the host system. OS updates are fast and there is no installation stage. It is also possible to roll back to the previous version of the operating system, if something goes wrong.[9]
  • Kinoite: Fedora Kinoite is an immutable KDE-based desktop.[10]
  • Sericea: Fedora Sericea is an immutable Sway-based desktop.[11]
  • Onyx: Fedora Onyx is an immutable Budgie-based desktop.[12]
Spins
  • The Fedora project officially distributes different variations called "Fedora Spins" which are Fedora Linux with different desktop environments (GNOME is the default desktop environment).
  • The current official spins, as of Fedora 38, are[13]:
  • KDE Plasma, Xfce, LXQt, MATE (with Compiz), Cinnamon, LXDE, SoaS, i3, Phosh (for use on PinePhone), Budgie, and Sway.
Architecture Fedora supports several processor architectures:[14]
Architecture Description
Primary:
amd64 64-bits PC (x86-64)
AArch64 64-bits ARM (ARM8-A, 64 bits)
 
Alternative:
mipsel MIPS little endian misp/mipsel (MIPS 64-bits little-endian)
mips64el 64-bits MIPS little endiean (MIPS little-endian)
ppc64el 64-bits little endian PowerPC (PowerPC little-endian)
s390x IMB System Z (IBM ESA/390 & z/Architecture)
RISC-V (64-bit open source ISA)
Package format Fedora and distributions based on it use the .rpm package format.
Package manager • DNF (Dandified YUM), Flatpak and OSTree.
License • GPL with software and components LGPL
Website www.fedoraproject.org/
Fedora Releases History
Fedora Releases History
Version
Code name
Name
Release
date
Kernel
1
(Yarrow)
(Fedora Core)
2003-11-06 2.4.22
2
(Tettnang)
(Fedora Core)
2004-05-18 2.6.5
3
(Heidelberg)
(Fedora Core)
2004-11-08 2.6.9
4
(Stentz)
(Fedora Core)
2005-06-13 2.6.11
5
(Bordeaux)
(Fedora Core)
2006-03-20 2.6.15
6
(Zod)
(Fedora Core)
2006-10-24 2.6.18
7
(Moonshine)
(Fedora Linux)
2007-05-31 2.6.21
8
(Werewolf)
(Fedora Linux)
2007-11-08 2.6.23
9
(Sulphur)
(Fedora Linux)
2008-05-13 2.6.25
10
(Cambridge)
(Fedora Linux)
2008-11-25 2.6.27
11
(Leonidas)
(Fedora Linux)
2009-06-09 2.6.29
12
(Constantine)
(Fedora Linux)
2009-11-17 2.6.31
13
(Goddard)
(Fedora Linux)
2010-05-25 2.6.33
14
(Laughlin)
(Fedora Linux)
2010-11-02 2.6.35
15
(Lovelock)
(Fedora Linux)
2011-05-24 2.6.38
16
(Verne)
(Fedora Linux)
2011-11-08 3.1
17
(Beefy Miracle)
(Fedora Linux)
2012-05-29 3.3
18
(Spherical Cow)
(Fedora Linux)
2013-01-15 3.6
19
(Schrödinger's Cat)
(Fedora Linux)
2013-07-02 3.9
20
(Heisenbug)
(Fedora Linux)
2013-12-17 3.11
21
(Fedora Linux)
2014-12-09 3.17
22
(Fedora Linux)
2015-05-26 4.0
23
(Fedora Linux)
2015-11-03 4.2
24
(Fedora Linux)
2016-06-21 4.5
25
(Fedora Linux)
2016-11-22 4.8
26
(Fedora Linux)
2017-07-11 4.11
27
(Fedora Linux)
2017-11-14 4.13
28
(Fedora Linux)
2018-05-01 4.16
29
(Fedora Linux)
2018-10-30 4.18
30
(Fedora Linux)
2019-05-07 5.0
31
(Fedora Linux)
2019-10-29 5.3
32
(Fedora Linux)
2020-04-28 5.6
33
(Fedora Linux)
2020-10-27 5.8
34
(Fedora Linux)
2021-04-27 5.11
35
(Fedora Linux)
2021-11-02 5.14
36
(Fedora Linux)
2022-05-10 5.17
37
(Fedora Linux)
2022-11-15 6.0
38
(Fedora Linux)
2023-04-18 6.2
39
(Fedora Linux)
2023-11-07 6.5
40
(Fedora Linux)
2024-04-23 6.8
41
(Fedora Linux)
2024-10-15 to be determined


Active Fedora Linux based distributions

  1. ADIOS Linux Boot CD
  2. AnNyung LInux
  3. ASPLinux
  4. ATmission
  5. Aurora SPARC Linux
  6. Berry Linux
  7. BioBrew Linux Distribution
  8. Boston University Linux
  9. CentOS Stream
  10. Co-CreateLinux
  11. Eeedora
  12. Ekaaty Linux
  13. ELX Linux
  14. EnGarde Secure Linux
  15. Everest Linux
  16. Exton|Defender SRS
  17. EzPlanet One Linux
  18. Freedows
  19. FTOSX Desktop
  20. FX64 Linux: Is a LiveCD GNU/Linux distribution based on Fedora. FX64 Linux comes with Cinnamon and Fluxbox. Google Chrome, Java IcedTea, Skype & RAR preinstalled. Hand picked essential system, office, multimedia and internet applications. Updates directly from the official Fedora, RPM Fusion repositories. Thousands of free applications for every need directly from the open source community.
  21. Gelecek Linux
  22. Haansoft Linux
  23. Hancom Linux
  24. Honeywall CDROM
  25. IDMS Linux
  26. Ignalum Linux
  27. Linpus Linux
  28. Linux XP, based on Red Hat Linux & Fedora Core.
  29. Magic Linux
  30. MCNLive
  31. Moblin
  32. myLinux
  33. MythDora
  34. Network Security Toolkit
  35. Nobara Project
  36. Nusantara
  37. NuxOne Linux
  38. Ojuba Linux
  39. O-Net
  40. One Laptop Per Child (OLPC)
  41. OpenLX
  42. OpenNA Linux
  43. Openwall GNU/*/Linux
  44. Oreon Linux
  45. Pingo Linux
  46. PLS Linux
  47. Qubes OS
  48. Red Hat Enterprise Linux
  49. Red Star OS
  50. Russian Fedora Remix
  51. SERPRO
  52. Synergy Linux
  53. SuliX
  54. Ultramarine Linux
  55. Vixta
  56. Xange
  57. Xteam Linux


CentOS Stream

CentOS Stream is a continuously delivered distro(uses the Fedora OS base) that tracks just ahead of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) development, positioned as a midstream between Fedora Linux and RHEL.[15]

CentOS Stream is a GNU/Linux distribution that exists as a midstream between the upstream development in Fedora Linux and the downstream development for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.


History

The initial release, CentOS Stream 8, was released on 24/09/2019, at the same time as CentOS 8. As CentOS 8 became unsupported, The CentOS Project provided a simple means of converting from CentOS Linux 8 to CentOS Stream 8.

In 13 January 2021, CentOS board approved the creation of Hyperscale SIG proposed by Meta Platforms, Twitter, and Verizon engineers, which focus on enabling CentOS Stream deployment on large-scale infrastructures and facilitating collaboration on packages and tooling.

CentOS Stream 9 was released on 3 December 2021, with support of IBM Z architecture.


CentOS Stream Releases History
Version /
Release date
Kernel Architectures
8
2019-09-24
4.18.0 x86-64, ARM64, ppc64le
9
2021-12-03
5.14.0 x86-64, ARM64, ppc64le, s390x


Discontinued Fedora Linux based distributions

  1. Aurox
  2. Basilisk
  3. BLAG Linux and GNU
  4. eZeY (ex Kdora, Open Xange, formerly Xange, Vixta, Simplis; until Kedora 2015.04 version. From 2021 Kedora)
  5. EduLinux
  6. Korora
  7. FoX Linux
  8. Fuduntu, (until version 14.11. Then independent Fuduntu 14.12).
  9. HackShark[16]
  10. K12Linux (formerly K12LTSP).
  11. tinysofa
  12. Red Flag Linux
  13. Trustix Secure Linux
  14. Yellow Dog Linux, based on CentOS & Fedora


BLAG Linux and GNU

BLAG Linux and GNU is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribution that was made by the Brixton Linux Action Group.

BLAG was a single-CD distro with a range of default desktop applications, including multimedia, graphics, desktop internet applications and more. BLAG also included a collection of server packages. BLAG was based on Fedora plus updates, adds apps from Dag, Dries, Freshrpms, NewRPMS, and includes custom packages.

BLAG was one of the few operating systems listed as a completely free software distribution by the Free Software Foundation.


History

The first public release of BLAG was 22/10/2002.

The latest stable release, BLAG 140k, was based on Fedora 14, and was released on 04/05/2011. In October 2014 Blag 200000 was released in alpha form.

Planning for BLAG 240000 commenced in January 2016 but it was never released.

The script used in BLAG for cleaning the kernel from non-free blobs shipped in it by default was used as a base for the Linux-libre set of scripts.


BLAG Linux and GNU Releases History
Version Release Date Code name
9000 22/10/2002
9001 07/12/2003 spike
9002 12/04/2004 trike
10000 08/06/2004 borrow
20000 alfa 03/08/2004
30000 20/04/2005 iceberg
30001 13/08/2005
30002 03/02/2006
30003 29/03/2006 bicycle
40000 alfa 27/08/2006
50000 10/07/2006
50001 23/08/2006
50002 30/09/2006
50003 29/11/2006 sancerre
60000 14/01/2007
60000 beta 02/01/2007
60001 10/05/2007 odd
70000 12/11/2007 sugarwater
90000 15/07/2008
90001 22/07/2008
140000 04/05/2011
20000 alpha 25/10/2014


Korora

Korora (formerly Kororaa), is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribution based on Fedora Linux, and reborn as a remix of it. It was started by Christopher Smart, initially as a method to quickly reproduce a Gentoo Linux installation on multiple desktop machines. Smart also intended that Korora be used to quickly demonstrate the power of Gentoo Linux to users critical of 'compile times'.


History
  • On November 7, 2007, Smart announced that development on Korora would be ended, and no further versions would be released; the reasons given were that:
  • Sabayon Linux already serves a purpose as a binary Gentoo distribution
  • Gentoo already comes with a GUI installer
  • Compiz is already installed by default in the MATE-edition.
  • Korora could not compete with other distributions which include non-free drivers by default.
  • The weight of the project was too much for a single developer.
  • On December 23, 2010, Smart announced the restart of Korora with a release of the Fedora-based version of the distro:

I know that you'll be looking for something Linux related to do over your Christmas holidays and New Year, so I've just released the first installable live DVD beta for testing. The final release will be Korora 14 (derived from Fedora 14), code-named "Nemo". As with the original Korora, it's based on KDE. Essentially, Korora has been reborn as a Fedora remix, inspired by Rahul Sundaram's Omega GNOME remix. It aims to provide all general computing uses out of the box and it aims to include software packages that most users will want.

  • It was finally active from version 14 Beta, released on 12/25/2010, until version Korora 26, released on 09/16/2017.

Name
  • The name derives from the Māori word kororā, the little penguin.
  • With the release of version 18, released on 02/05/2013, the system changed its name from Kororaa to Korora.
Korora Releases History
Version Release Date Based on
Kororaa Beta 2 R1 2005-12-12 Gentoo
Kororaa XGL Live CD 0.1 2006-03-08
Kororaa XGL Live CD 0.2 2006-04-06
Kororaa XGL Live CD 0.3 2006-10-04
Kororaa 14 Beta 2010-12-25 Fedora
Kororaa Linux 14 Beta 2 2011-02-11
Kororaa Linux 14 Beta 3 2011-03-02
Kororaa Linux 14 Beta 4 2011-03-22
Kororaa Linux 14 Beta 5 2011-03-31
Kororaa Linux 14 Beta 6 2011-04-22
Kororaa Linux 14 2011-05-31
Kororaa Linux 15 Beta 2011-07-16
Kororaa Linux 15 Beta 2 2011-07-20
Kororaa Linux 15 2011-09-20
Kororaa Linux 15.1 2011-10-20
Kororaa Linux 16 2011-12-16
Kororaa Linux 17 2012-07-16
Korora 18 2013-05-02
Korora 19 2013-07-02
Korora 19.1 2013-10-08
Korora 20 2014-01-10
Korora 21 Beta 2015-01-03
Korora 21 2015-02-07
Korora 22 2015-08-02
Korora 23 2016-02-07
Korora 24 2016-07-19
Korora 25 2016-12-07
Korora 26 2017-09-16


K12Linux (K12LTSP)

K12Linux (formerly K12LTSP) is a discontinued spin GNU/Linux distribution that was based on Fedora and CentOS with the Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) software packages integrated, running as a terminal server, distributed under the GNU General Public License. It was designed to be easy to install and configure. K12LTSP was an offshoot of the Linux in School Project.

The distribution is based on Fedora Linux and LTSP terminal server libraries.

K12LTSP was easy to install and configure.

Once K12LTSP was installed, the terminals could boot from the server computer without needing their own floppy disk or hard disk. All programs run on the terminal server, with workstations running on 'hard clients' - i.e. computers with neither software nor hard disks.

Thin workstations are well suited to schools because they are easy to install and require little maintenance.



EduLinux

EduLinux was an educational GNU/Linux distribution based on K12LTSP, also based on Fedora, developed by the Instituto de Informática Educativa of the Universidad de la Frontera, Chile.

This distribution was the product of a joint initiative between the Educational Computing Institute of the Universidad de la Frontera and the Ministry of Education of Chile through the Enlaces Program in order to reuse old computers installed in the Red Escolar Enlaces of Chile.

This technological solution was materialized through an Educational Distribution of the GNU/Linux, which included a set of free software for Internet (Firefox, Email, Chat, among others), office software (OpenOffice.org: word processor, spreadsheets, presentation tools, database, graphics, drawing), a basic educational software package that came from the KDE Edutaiment project, among other software packages.

It was a Client/Server solution oriented to provide a free software alternative for educational computer labs. To do so, it used a powerful computer (as a server) to reuse, as clients, old or low-performance computers, which by themselves cannot use modern applications.

Specifically, they were used on computers installed in 1997, 1998 and 1999 to improve access to the Internet (e.g. Web, e-mail) and desktop applications (e.g. OpenOffice.org). Since its inception in 2005, EduLinux was installed in more than 2200 Educational Establishments belonging to the Red Escolar Enlaces of Chile.



References