Independent GNU/Linux distributions list

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Independent GNU/Linux distributions

An Independent GNU/Linux distribution is one that does not or does not currently depend on others for its development.
Main distro.: Distribution with great reputation and significance, be it in terms of number of users, important/relevant developments or derivative distributions. Historical: Distribution is an active or discontinued distribution that has left an important mark on the world of free and open source software and GNU/Linux.

Active Independent GNU/Linux distributions

Discontinued Independent GNU/Linux distributions

  1. Red Hat Linux​ - (main distro., historical)
  2. Mandriva​​ - (main distro., historical)
  3. Softlanding Linux System (SLS Linux)​ - (historical)
  4. MCC Interim Linux - (historical)
  5. SCO Linux - (historical)
  6. TAMU Linux - (historical)
  7. Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X - (historical)
  8. 0Linux​
  9. 7linux​
  10. aLinux (ex Peanut Linux)
  11. AmigoLinux
  12. Ark Linux​
  13. Beakos GNU/Linux​
  14. blackPanther OS
  15. BOGUS Linux​
  16. ByzantineOS
  17. Caos Linux, an RPM-based GNU/Linux distribution started by Gregory Kurtzer in 2002, CentOS base.
  18. CCux
  19. Chakra GNU/Linux​​ - (historical)
  20. Conectiva Linux​ - (historical)
  21. Deutsche Linux-Distribution​​ - (historical)
  22. DSlinux​​
  23. Foresight Linux​​
  24. Fuduntu​
  25. Jurix​​​ - (historical)
  26. Linux 0.12​ or Boot/Root (HJ Lu's)​
  27. Linux Router Project​
  28. LST Power Linux
  29. Myah OS
  30. MJ Linux, (Martin Junius's)​
  31. MassOS GNU/LInux​​
  32. Minimal Linux Live​
  33. MkLinux​
  34. Nitix​
  35. OpenELEC
  36. Peachtree Linux​
  37. ROCK Linux
  38. ROSA Linux
  39. rPath Linux​
  40. SmoothWall​
  41. Sorcerer Linux
  42. Tinfoil Hat Linux​
  43. Turbolinux​
  44. Tomsrtbt​
  45. Unity Linux​.
  46. YOPER​
  47. Zeroshell​

Summary description of the distributions


4MLinux is an active Linux distribution from Poland, small, independent and general-purpose, with a strong focus on the following four "M" of computing:[1]

  • 1M: Maintenance (system rescue Live CD),
  • 2M: Multimedia (full support for a huge number of image, audio and video formats),
  • 3M: Miniserver (DNS, FTP, HTTP, MySQL, NFS, Proxy, SMTP, SSH, and Telnet),
  • 4M: Mystery (meaning a collection of classic Linux games).

The first release was in 2010.[2]

Release history
4MLinux Release history
Release version Release date
1.0 2014-08-24
2.0 2014-08-24
3.0 2014-08-24
4.0 2014-08-24
5.0 2014-08-24
6.0 2014-08-24
7.0 2014-10-09
8.0 2014-10-10
9.0 2014-10-12
10.0 2015-02-08
11.0 2015-05-09
13.0 2015-07-04
12.0 2015-07-04
14.0 2015-09-20
15.0 2015-11-14
16.0 2016-01-15
17.0 2016-03-12
18.0 2016-05-11
19.0 2016-07-16
20.0 2017-02-03
21.0 2017-03-06
22.0 2017-03-18
23.0 2017-07-23
24.0 2017-11-25
25.0 2018-03-20
27.0 2018-12-01
26.0 2018-12-01
28.0 2018-12-25
29.0 2019-03-24
30.0 2019-06-23
31.0 2019-09-28
32.0 2019-12-28
33.0 2020-03-28
34.0 2020-06-28
35.0 2020-09-30
36.0 2021-09-05
38.0 2021-12-25
37.0 2021-12-25
39.0 2021-12-26
40.0 2022-05-03
41.0 2022-09-18
42.0 2022-12-31
43.0 2023-06-11
44.0 2023-09-10

4MLinux - Active derivatives
  1. Antivirus Live CD[3], An official 4MLinux fork including the ClamAV scanner.
  2. BakAndImgCD[4], is a small Linux-based operating system, which has been designed to perform the following two tasks: data backup and disk imaging.
  3. TheSSS (The Smallest Server Suite)[5], Is a lightweight server suite distributed as a live CD. It is designed for system administrators who need an extremely tiny and fast set of server software.

Adélie Linux

Adélie Linux is an independent GNU/Linux distribution, based on the Linux kernel and musl standard C library, focus on reliability, security, compatibility, portability, and usability.

  • Adélie offers a GNU Coreutils based userland by default.
  • Adélie Linux system uses the APK package manager.
    • APK was chosen because it is very fast, and its dependency resolver is one of the more performant and efficient package managers available for GNU/Linux.
  • Adélie uses SystemV-style with OpenRC service manager and s6 process supervisor respectively.
  • Supported architectures: x86, x86-64, 32-bit PowerPC (PPC), 64-bit PowerPC (PPC64), ARM 64 (ARMv8) and ARM 32 bits (ARMv7L).
  • Graphical User Interfase available:


The Adélie penguin is closely related to the Gentoo penguin, and Adélie Linux traces its roots to Gentoo Linux. Adélie is not a Gentoo fork and has little, if anything, to show for that now. The penguin itself was named after the wife of a French explorer.

Who's behind Adélie?

Officially, no single individual. We're a group of like-minded hackers who want a better GNU/Linux distribution. Historically, it was started by A. Wilcox and others around 2015 but has taken on several forms since then.

Adéline Linux Releases History
Version Release Date
1.0-alpha1 12/12/2016
1.0-beta1 14/09/2018
1.0-beta2 18/12/2018
1.0-beta3 15/05/2019
1.0-beta4 22/08/2019
1.0-RC1 03/02/2020
1.0-RC2 01/10/2020
1.0-beta5 26/04/2024

Alpine Linux

Alpine Linux is a norwegian Linux distribution designed for routers, firewalls, VPNs, VoIP boxes, containers, and servers.

Alpine Linux began as an embedded-first distribution for devices such as wireless routers, based on Gentoo Linux, inspired by GNAP (Gentoo Network Appliance Project) and the Bering-uClibc branch of the LEAF Project. (Linux Embedded Appliance Framework).

Founder Natanel Copa has said that the name was chosen as a backronym for "A Linux-Powered Network Engine" or some similar phrase, but that the exact phrase has since been forgotten.

Alpine Linux uses musl, BusyBox and OpenRC instead of the more commonly used glibc, GNU Core Utilities and systemd respectively.

Alpine LInux Release history[6][7]
Alpine Linux 1.x, 2.x & 3.x
Alpine Linux 1.x
Release version Release date
First Release 08/2005
1.7.3 15/09/2007
1.7.4 15/09/2007
1.7.5 15/09/2007
1.7.6 21/09/2007
1.7.7 22/10/2007
1.7.8 13/11/2007
1.7.9 23/11/2007
1.7.10 05/12/2007
1.7.11 05/01/2008
1.7.12 23/01/2008
1.7.13 19/02/2008
1.7.14 05/03/2008
1.7.15 21/03/2008
1.7.16 04/04/2008
1.7.17 02/05/2008
1.7.18 23/05/2008
1.7.19 01/07/2008
1.7.20 15/08/2008
1.7.21 01/09/2008
1.7.22 15/09/2008
1.7.23 26/09/2008
1.7.24 08/10/2008
1.7.25 24/10/2008
1.7.26 07/11/2008
1.7.27 22/11/2008
1.7.28 05/12/2008
1.7.29 31/12/2008
1.8.0 05/02/2009
1.8.1 05/03/2009
1.8.2 22/04/2009
1.8.3 04/05/2009
1.9.0 02/10/2009
1.9.1 21/10/2009
1.9.2 13/12/2009
1.9.3 24/12/2009
1.10.1 18/03/2010
1.10.3 08/05/2010
1.10.4 09/06/2010
1.10.5 10/06/2010
1.10.6 16/06/2010
Alpine Linux 2.x
Release version Release date Minor releases
2.0.0 17/08/2010 2.0.1, 2.0.2, 2.0.3
2.1.0 01/11/2010 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4, 2.1.5. 2.1.6
2.2.0 03/05/2011 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.3
2.3.0 01/11/2011 2.3.1, 2.3.2, 2.3.3, 2.3.4. 2.3.5, 2.3.6
2.4.0 02/05/2012 2.4.1, 2.4.2, 2.4.3, 2.4.4, 2.4.5, 2.4.6, 2.4.7, 2.4.8, 2.4.9, 2.4.10, 2.4.11
2.5.0 07/11/2012 2.5.1, 2.5.2, 2.5.3, 2.5.4
2.6.0 17/05/2013 2.6.1, 2.6.2, 2.6.3, 2.6.4, 2.6.5, 2.6.6
2.7.0 08/11/2013 2.7.1, 2.7.2, 2.7.3, 2.7.4, 2.7.5, 2.7.6, 2.7.7, 2.7.8, 2.7.9
Alpine Linux 3.x
Release version Release date Minor releases
3.0.0 04/06/2014 3.0.1, 3.0.2, 3.0.3, 3.0.4, 3.0.5, 3.0.6
3.1.0 10/12/2014 3.1.1, 3.1.2, 3.1.3, 3.1.4
3.2.0 26/05/2015 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3
3.3.0 18/12/2015 3.3.1, 3.3.2, 3.3.3
3.4.0 31/05/2016 3.4.1, 3.4.2 3.4.3, 3.4.4, 3.4.5, 3.4.6
3.5.0 22/12/2016 3.5.1, 3.5.2, 3.5.3
3.6.0 24/05/2017 3.6.1, 3.6.2, 3.6.3, 3.6.4, 3.6.5
3.7.0 30/11/2017 3.7.1, 3.7.2, 3.7.3
3.8.0 26/06/2018 3.8.1, 3.8.2, 3.8.3, 3.8.4, 3.8.5
3.9.0 29/01/2019 3.9.1, 3.9.2, 3.9.3, 3.9.4, 3.9.5, 3.9.6
3.10.0 13/06/2019 3.10.1, 3.10.2, 3.10.3, 3.10.4, 3.10.5, 3.10.6, 3.10.7, 3.10.8, 3.10.9
3.11.0 19/12/2019 3.11.2, 3.11.3, 3.11.5, 3.11.6, 3.11.7, 3.11.8, 3.11.9, 3.11.10, 3.11.11, 3.11.12, 3.11.13
3.12.0 29/05/2020 3.12.1, 3.12.2, 3.12.3, 3.12.4, 3.12.5, 3.12.6, 3.12.7, 3.12.8, 3.12.9, 3.12.10, 3.12.11, 3.12.12
3.13.0 14/01/2021 3.13.1, 3.13.2, 3.13.3, 3.13.4, 3.13.5, 3.13.6, 3.13.7, 3.13.8, 3.13.9, 3.13.10, 3.13.11, 3.13.12
3.14.0 15/06/2021 3.14.1, 3.14.2, 3.14.3, 3.14.4, 3.14.5, 3.14.6, 3.14.7, 3.14.8, 3.14.9, 3.14.10
3.15.0 24/12/2021 3.15.1, 3.15.2, 3.15.3, 3.15.4, 3.15.5, 3.15.6, 3.15.7, 3.15.8, 3.15.9, 3.15.10, 3.15.11
3.16.0 23/05/2022 3.16.1, 3.16.2, 3.16.3, 3.16.4, 3.16.5, 3.16.6, 3.16.7, 3.16.8, 3.16.9
3.17.0 22/11/2022 3.17.1, 3.17.2, 3.17.3, 3.17.4, 3.17.5, 3.17.6, 3.17.7
3.18.0 09/05/2023 3.18.1, 3.18.2, 3.18.3, 3.18.4, 3.18.5, 3.18.6
3.19.0 07/12/2023 3.19.1, 3.20.0
3.20.0 22/05/2024
Alpine Linux - Active derivatives
  1. postmarketOS (abbreviated as pmOS) is a Linux distribution for mobile devices. postmarketOS extends the free and open source operating system Alpine Linux to run on smartphones and other mobile devices. Alpine is a security-oriented, light-weight Linux distribution based on musl libc and BusyBox.[8]
  2. Bellsoft Alpaquita Linux

Bellsoft Alpaquita Linux

Bellsoft Alpaquita Linux' is a full-featured GNU/Linux distribution optimized for Java and cloud environment based on Alpine Linux.

It has a minimal memory footprint with base image size of 3.28 MB; kernel optimizations, memory management, optimized mallocs; an enhanced flexibility with glibc and both standard and optimized musl available, and support to CRaC (Coordinated Restore at Checkpoint).



  • Always on Linux LTS.
  • SecureBoot, signed modules, disabled modules with CVEs
  • Better performance tunables, optimized size (xz)

Userspace based on Alpine Linux aports:

  • Busybox, on-demand coreutils
  • Main/aports & apk package manager
  • No graphics


  • Musl and glibc support
  • Optimized musl, optimized mallocs

Compatibility with Docker, QEMU support:

  • Docker
  • QEMU support

ALT Linux

ALT Linux is a russian GNU/Linux distribution (forked from Mandrake), based on RPM Package Manager (RPM) and built on a Linux kernel and Sisyphus package repository.

  • ALT Linux was developed by ALT Linux Ltd. In 2015, it's been replaced with BaseALT Ltd..

ALT Linux Team arose from the merger of IPLabs Linux Team and the GNU/Linux community of the Institute of Logic, Cognitive Science and Development of Personality in 2001.

The latter cooperated with Mandrake Linux and SUSE Linux teams to improve localization (specifically Cyrillic script), producing a Linux-Mandrake Russian Edition (RE).

Mandrake and Mandrake RE became different distributions and thus the decision was made to create a separate project.

The name ALT was coined, which is a recursive acronym meaning ALT Linux Team.

ALT Linuz Releases History
Version Release date Based on
Linux Mandrake Russian Edition 5.1
(Linux Mandrake russified)
1998 Linux Mandrake
Linux Mandrale Russian Edition 6.0 Summer 1999 Linux Mandrake
Linux Mandrake Russian Edition 7.0 Early 2000 Linux Mandrake
Linux-Mandrake Russian Edition Spring 2001
1.0 unofficial
25/03/2001 Independent
1.1 12/09/2001 Independent
2.0 17/04/2002 Independent
2.2 04/03/2003 Independent
2.3 25/03/2004 Independent
2.4 19/09/2004 Independent
3.0 08/12/2005 Independent
4.0 27/08/2007 Independent
4.1.1 14/01/2009 Independent
5.0.0 29/10/2009 Independent
6.0.0 30/08/2011 Independent
7.0.0 01/07/2013 Independent
8.0 16/08/2016 Independent
8.1 24/11/2016 Independent
8.2 31/12/2017 Independent
8.2.1 06/09/2019 Independent
9.0 28/10/2019 Independent
9.1 02/08/2020 Independent
10.0 16/12/2021 Independent
10.1 16/11/2022 Independent
Active ALT Linux based distributions
  1. Ximper Linnux


Batocera.linux is a french GNU/Linux distribution dedicated to running retro-gaming software.

The distribution is able to run on most desktop computers, laptops and several single-board computers, including the Raspberry Pi.

Batocera.linux can be copied to a USB stick or an SD card with the aim of turning any computer/nano computer into a gaming console during a game or permanently. batocera.linux is based on RecalboxOS.

Bedrock Linux

Bedrock Linux is an active meta GNU/Linux distribution which allows users to mix-and-match components from other, typically incompatible distributions. Its similar in spirit to Linux From Scratch or Gentoo, it distributes a means to install a Linux based operating system even if it does not distribute most of the resulting binary files directly.

Bedrock Linux integrates these components into one largely cohesive system.

For example, one could have:

  • Debian's stable coreutils
  • Arch's cutting edge kernel
  • Void's runit init system
  • A pdf reader with custom patches automatically maintained by Gentoo's portage
  • A font from Arch's AUR
  • Games running against Ubuntu's libraries
  • Business software running against CentOS's libraries

All at the same time and working together mostly as though they were packaged for the same distribution.

Bedrock Linux provides a technical means to work around cross-distro compatibility limitations and, in many instances, resolve this limitation.[9]


BOGUS LInux is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribution. and it was the first Linux distribution that featured a pristine source package management system. While other distributions have adopted pristine source management, BOGUS may still be the only distribution that uses a single final build to create the whole distribution.

Doug Hoffman, Kevin E. Martin, and Rik Faith started designing BOGUS in October 1993.

  • BOGUS has a Package Management System (pms) fully operational in December 1993.
  • The alpha release (version 0.1) was ready in January 1994
  • Version 1.0 was released in July 1994.
  • Version 1.0.1 was released in October 1994.

BOGUS was a bootstrapping version: all the patches necessary to compile the complete system are provided, including explicit instructions on how was did the compilation. In fact, final compilation was automatic, requiring the user to invoke a single command.[10]

Conectiva Linux

Conectiva Linux is a brazilian discontinued GNU/Linux distribution and a company founded on August 28, 1995 in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, by a group of friends, mostly civil servants from Banco do Brasil, together with Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo.

  • Conectiva has developed a series of products and other services aimed at the free software utilities market, including books, manuals, additional software such as Linux Tools and support for the whole of Latin America through its service centres and partners.
  • The Crystal icons for KDE, which were designed by Conectiva employee Esveraldo Coelho, and the apt4rpm port for the Debian GNU/Linux package management, were developed by Conectiva.
  • The package manager Synaptic was originally developed by Conectiva.
  • It also published the monthly Linux Magazine.
  • Conectiva also provided development, customisation and professional services worldwide through its group of free software engineers.

History (summary)

Conectiva Linux it was initially a fork of Red Hat Linux.

  • The first release, Conectiva Linux 1.0 Parolin, it was released on 07/10/1997, based on RPM packages and used APT to update and install pachages.

On 24 January 2005 it was announced that MandrakeSoft had acquired Conectiva for 1.79 million euros.

On february 2005, in February 2005, MandrakeSoft merged with Conectiva, under the name of Mandriva S.A., with headquarters in Paris, France.

On 7 April 2005, MandrakeSoft announced that it was changing the name of the company to Mandriva and its distributions to Mandriva Linux (in Brazil, just Mandriva).

Conectiva Releases History
Name & numering Version Release date
Conectiva Red Hat Linux 1.0 Parolin 07/10/1997
Conectiva Red Hat Linux 2.0 Marumbi 25/06/1998
Conectiva Linux 3.0 Guarani 12/1998
Conectiva Linux 1.0 Server (Intel) 04/1999
Conectiva Linux 1.0 Server (Compaq Alpha) 05/1999
Conectiva Linux 4.0 02/07/1999
Conectiva Linux 4.2 Server 10/1999
Conectiva Linux 5.0 02/2000
Conectiva Linux 5.1 Server 29/06/2000
Conectiva Linux 6.0 Desktop/Server 22/11/2000
Conectiva Linux 7.0 Desktop/Server 31/07/2001
Conectiva Linux 8.0 Desktop/Server 18/04/2002
Conectiva Linux Enterprise Edition (UL) 11/2002
Conectiva Linux 9 Professional 23/04/2003
Conectiva Linux 10 Desktop/Professional 05/07/2004
Conectiva Linux 0.5 Live CD 11/08/2004
Conectiva Linux 0.7 Beta 2 Live CD 10/09/2004


CCux Linux is a german discontinued GNU/Linux distribution developed for i686 architecture, optimised for speed.

All packages were built from scratch and not derived from any other distribution.

The installation media installs the system in Germany as default and uses the KDE desktop environment as default.

It features a graphical QT/X11 based installation to provide an easy installation procedure even to unexperienced users.

CCux Linux was especially designed for desktop use.

Used the RPM package manager to install and update packages.

Chakra GNU/Linux

Chakra GNU/Linux is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribution originally based on Arch Linux, and later was independent, focused on KDE software, intending to provide a KDE/Qt minimizing use of other widget toolkits where possible.

  • In June 2006 a group of Arch Linux users initiated the KDEmod packaging project to improve and simplify a standard KDE installation with Arch Linux.
  • In December 2008 the group released their first custom made ISO with a preconfigured Arch + KDEmod + Tribe.[11]
  • After several releases lead developer Jan Mette suggested to split from Arch to allow for a much closer integration with KDE software.
  • On August 30, 2010, the first independent version, called Chakra 0.2, was released.[12] This ended the development on KDEmod and the project was renamed to "The Chakra Project".[13]
  • On December 27, 2021, the lead developer of Chakra announced the discontinuation of the project including accounts and services, citing a lack of project activity since November 2019.[14]
  • On 11 April 2022, the board of Software in the Public Interest, Inc. (SPI), who owned the trademark of Chakra, voted unanimously on the removal of Chakra as an associated project of the SPI, based on the request from Chakra.[15][16]

Chakra Linux Releases History
Official numering Code name Release date Description
Alpha1 Geen 21/12/2008 Based on Arch Linux + KDEmod + Tribe
Alpha2 Geen 17/02/2009
Alpha3 Test 30/09/2009
Alpha4 NewAge 17/11/2009
Alpha5 Panora 29/03/2010
0.2 Jaz 30/08/2010 First independent release
0.3 Ashoc 2011
0.4 Cyrus 2011
2011.04-r2 Aida 17/07/2011
2011.09 Edn 29/08/2011
2012.02 Archimedes 12/02/2012
2012.08 Claire 24/08/2012
2013.02 Benz 10/02/2013
2013.09 Fritz Van Tom 22/09/2013
2014.02 Curie 03/02/2014
2014.05 Descartes 21/05/2014
2014.10 Euler 24/10/2014
2015.08 Fermi 08/11/2015
2016.02 Ian 29/02/2016
2017.03 Goedel 14/03/2017
2017.10 Goedel 15/10/2017
2019.01 Hawking 01/2019

Chimera Linux

Chimera Linux is an independent, general-purpose, rolling-release Linux distribution developed from scratch.

  • It utilizes a FreeBSD-based userland, musl C library and the LLVM toolchain, along with the dinit service manager.
  • Its primary focus is correctness, consistency and simplicity, but not at the expense of feature set; its primary desktop environment is GNOME.[17]

Chimera Linux started in the middle of 2021 with the goal of creating a modern non-GNU distribution.

The first component of Chimera was cbuild, first imported at the beginning of June 2021 after about a month of development.

Initially, cbuild was a from-scratch rewrite of xbps-src from Void Linux. It came with a minimal set of build templates, then still based around the GCC compiler and GNU coreutils, as well as the xbps package manager, on the ppc64le CPU architecture (self-bootstrap was possible from the start).[18]

Clear Linux OS

Clear Linux OS is a rolling release GNU/Linux distribution developed and maintained on Intel's open-source platform, and optimized for performance and security, for Intel's microprocessors.

  • Its optimizations are also effective on AMD systems.

Clear Linux OS is not intended to be a general-purpose GNU/Linux distribution; it is designed to be used by IT professionals for DevOps, AI application development, cloud computing, and containers.

The operating system upgrades as a whole rather than using individual packages.

Extra software can be added to the system (along with associated dependencies) using pre-compiled bundles which can be accessed through the distribution's swupd software manager.

  • Stateless: Operate without any custom configuration, for example, a generic host with an empty /etc directory. Stateless systems strictly separate the OS configuration, the per-system configuration, and the VT user-data stored on that system.
  • Close to upstream: Clear Linux stays in lockstep with upstream, always staying on the latest version of the kernel and compilers. Daily security mitigations deliver available security updates to customers rapidly.
  • Open Source: A modular, cross-architecture, open source OS providing users the ability to differentiate.
  • Stateless: Designed so that the user is able to quickly and easily manage their custom configuration vs. system configuration.
  • Built for Customization: > 4,000 complete packages available.
  • Intel Optimized: Highly tuned for Intel platforms where all optimization is turned on by default.


In 2015, Intel introduced Clear Linux OS at OpenStack Summit 2015, Vancouver initially, it was limited to cloud usage.

Intel began the Clear Containers project to address container security.

In 2015, originally, Clear Linux OS was deployed as a single monolithic unit.

In May 2019, Clear Linux OS released a new Desktop Installer and started a Help Forum. Clear Linux OS is available via Microsoft Azure marketplace, and Amazon Web Services marketplace.


CRUX is a lightweight GNU/Linux distribution for the x86-64 architecture targeted at experienced GNU/Linux users, created by Per Lidén and CRUX community.

  • The primary focus of this distribution is keep it simple (it was the ideological base for Arch Linux), which is reflected in a simple tar.gz-based package system, BSD-style initscripts (it also utilizes a ports system to install and upgrade applications), and a relatively small collection of trimmed packages.
  • The secondary focus is utilization of new Linux features and recent tools and libraries. CRUX also has a ports system which makes it easy to install and upgrade applications.

  • KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid) concept, applied to both the system and the development process
  • Source based package installation using a ports system
  • Simplicity over automation
  • Targetted at experienced users with compact, to the point documentation
  • Native configurations over configuration abstraction layers (think: sysconfig)
  • Slim, stripped of unneeded documentation and files (including National Language Support; CRUX only supports the native language the programs were written in, which is english in most cases)
  • Up to date features and packages, however no bleeding edge software in the main repositories
  • Easy way to extend the system by yourself
  • Active community of contributors outside the core development team

CRUX Releases History
Version Date
1.0 Dec/2002
1.1 Mar/2003
1.2 Aug/2003
1.3 Dec/2003
1.3.1 Feb/2004
2.0 Mar/2004
2.1 Apr/2005
2.2 Apr/2006
2.3 Mar/2007
2.4 Dec/2007
2.5 Dec/2008
2.6 Sep/2009
2.7 Oct/2010
2.7.1 Nov/2011
2.8 Oct/2012
3.0 Jan/2013
3.1 Jul/2014
3.2 Nov/2015
3.3 Feb/2017
3.4 May/2018
3.5 Jun/2019
3.6 Dec/2020
3.6.1 Dec/2020
3.7 26/09/2022
CRUX active derivatives
  1. CruxEX
  2. Kwort Linux: Kwort is an argentinian minimalist GNU/Linux distribution based on CRUX that uses the GTK+ toolkit and the Openbox window manager. Its most prominent feature is a package manager, called kpkg, for retrieving packages from download mirrors. The first version, kwort-1.0, was release on 11/05/2015.
  3. Thinstation

Thinstation is a New Zealand GNU/Linux distribution maintained by Donald A. Cupp Jr., based on CRUX, basic and small, yet very powerful, Open Source thin client operating system supporting all major connectivity protocols: Citrix ICA, Redhat Spice, NoMachine NX, 2X ThinClient, Microsoft Windows terminal services (RDP, via RDesktop/FreeRDP), VMWare Horizon View, Cendio ThinLinc, Tarantella, X, telnet, tn5250, VMS terminal and SSH (No special configuration of the application servers is needed to use ThinStation).

Discontinued Thinstation-based distributions
  1. Trusted End Node Security (TENS) (ex Lightweight Portable Security (LPS)): Is a discontinued LiveCD GNU/Linux distribution with a goal to increase privacy and improve security when using the Internet by US government employees. The system provides an environment free of viruses and spyware, which will not leave any traces of activity on your computer. It included a minimal set of applications and utilities. The LiveCD was a product produced by the United States of America's Department of Defence and was part of that organization's Software Protection Initiative. The system used the Common Access Card for identification in the DoD (Department of Defense) network.

Deutsche Linux-Distribution

The Deutsche Linux-Distribution (DLD) was the first German Linux distribution, and is a discontinued GNU/Linux distrobution.

It first appeared in 1992, and was published from 1994 onwards by Delix Computer GmbH, which had been founded by Dirk Haaga, Nils Mache and Jens Ziemann,[20] produced and distributed from Stuttgart.

Delix Computer GmbH offered its customers the DLD (Deutsche Linux-Distribution) as a premium version and a low-cost version of Slackware.[21]

Initially it was compatible with Slackware, but this compatibility was dropped when the Berkeley Software Distribution ('BSD) style init system was changed to System V style and RPM was introduced as the default package format. DLD distinguished itself by translating almost all documentations and programs into German.

At the beginning of 1999, the DLD version 6.0 Professional was certified by IBM as Netfinity Server Proven. The last version of the DLD 6.1 was released in 1999.

In the same year, Red Hat had taken over the company Delix, and the DLD was discontinued.

Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre

Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre is an argentinian distribution of GNU/linux based on the concepts of simplicity and elegance created from scratch. It was written by Matías A. Fonzo in Argentina.

It aims to be a multipurpose, stable and powerful operating system using only free software.

The initial release of Dragora was 13/06/2008.


EasyOS is a GNU/Linux distribution designed from scratch to support containers, that combine Puppy Linux technologies using containers to run system components..

  • Any app can run in a container, or an entire desktop can run in a container.

The container mechanism is named Easy Containers, and is designed from scratch (Docker, LXC, etc are not used).[22]

Packages, desktop settings, networking and sharing resources over the network can all be controlled through graphical utilities.


ELinOS is an embedded GNU/Linux distribution created by SYSGO, and development tools for a development host computer.

ELinOS provides embedded Linux as a standalone operating system or it can be integrated into the PikeOS virtualization platform if safety and security demands cannot be met by Linux alone.

The latter might be the case if a certification according to a strict industry standard is required.

Eclipse is the technical basis for the functionality provided by the integrated development environment (IDE) on the development host.

ELinOS was first published in 1999. A free ELinOS Test Version can be downloaded.


Fuduntu is a discontinued rolling release GNU/Linux distribution created by Andrew Wyatt. Although it was optimized for netbooks and other portable computers it is a general-purpose OS.

It was actively developed between 2010 and 2013.

  • The first release was on 07/11/2010, Fuduntu 14.0.8.
  • The last release was on 29/03/2010, Fuduntu 2013.2

Initially it was based on Fedora. It was designed to fit in somewhere between Fedora and Ubuntu.


After forking Fedora 14 in early November 2011,[23] Fuduntu became an independent distribution (from version 14.12) and was no longer considered a "remix" of Fedora, it did not qualify as a "spin" because it contained packages not included in Fedora.[24]

On a Team Meeting held on 14 April 2013, it was decided that Fuduntu would discontinue development and no new versions will be released. Large parts of the team were planning to work on a new rebased OS.[25] The move of wider support to GTK 3 and Systemd were also factors, as Fuduntu used GTK 2 and wasn't systemd based.

Fuduntu Releases History
Release date Official numbering Based on
07/11/2010 14.0.8 Fedora 14
25/11/2010 14.5 Fedora 14
06/12/2010 14.6 Fedora 14
10/12/2010 14.7 Fedora 14
18/12/2010 14.7-2 Fedora 14
21/12/2010 14.7-3 Fedora 14
05/01/20115 14.7-7 Fedora 14
07/01/2011 14.8 Fedora 14
16/01/2011 14.8-2 Fedora 14
23/01/2011 14.8-3 Fedora 14
29/01/2011 14.8-4 Fedora 14
11/03/2011 14.9 Fedora 14
18/06/2011 14.10 Fedora 15
04/07/2011 14.10.1 Fedora 15
20/09/2011 14.11 Fedora 15
07/11/2011 14.12 Fedora 15
10/01/2012 2012.1 Independent
01/04/2012 2012.2 Independent
02/07/2012 2012.3 Independent
01/10/2012 2012.4 Independent
04/01/2013 2013.1 Independent
29/03/2013 2013.2 Independent


Exherbo is a danish source-based Linux distribution inspired by the flexibility found in Gentoo Linux (being a fork of this distribution.).

Designed primarily for developers and advanced users who are expected to take an active role in the development of the distribution, Exherbo offers a decentralised development model, original code, and a fast and flexible package manager called Paludis.

Flatcar Container Linux

Flatcar Container Linux is a container optimized OS (inmutable) GNU/Linux distributions that ships a minimal image, which includes only the tools needed to run containers. The OS is shipped through an immutable filesystem and includes automatic atomic updates.

Flatcar Linux is a friendly fork of CoreOS's Container Linux and as such, compatible with it, and announced its launch on 06/03/2018.[26].

It is independently built, distributed and supported by the Kinvolk team.

Flatcar channels

Flatcar Container Linux was four channels for development:

  • Stable: The Stable channel is intended for use in production clusters. Versions of Flatcar Container Linux have been tested as they move through Alpha and Beta channels before being promoted to stable.
  • Beta: The Beta channel is where Flatcar Container Linux stability is solidified. We encourage including some beta machines in production clusters in order to catch any issues that may arise with your setup.
  • Alpha: The Alpha channel follows a more frequent release cadence and is where new updates are introduced. Users can try the new versions of the Linux kernel, systemd and other core packages.
  • LTS: LTS release streams will be maintained for an extended lifetime of 18 months. The yearly LTS streams have an overlap of 6 months.

Flatcar Container Linux Releases History[27]
Release /
Release Date Supported
Docker version
25/04/2018 amd64 17.12.1
26/05/2018 amd64 18.03.1
27/05/2018 amd64 18.03.1
01/06/2018 amd64 18.03.1
13/06/2018 amd64 18.03.1
15/06/2018 amd64 18.03.1
26/07/2018 amd64 18.03.1
31/07/2018 amd64 18.03.1
08/08/2018 amd64 18.03.1
17/08/2018 amd64 18.03.1
14/09/2018 amd64 18.06.1
11/10/2018 amd64 18.06.1
26/10/2018 amd64 18.06.1
08/11/2018 amd64 18.06.1
27/11/2018 amd64 18.06.1
21/12/2018 amd64 18.06.1
28/01/2019 amd64 18.06.1
28/01/2019 amd64 18.06.1
30/01/2019 amd64 18.06.1
14/02/2019 amd64 18.06.1
21/02/2019 amd64 18.06.1
27/02/2019 amd64 18.06.1
12/03/2019 amd64 18.06.1
24/04/2019 amd64 18.06.3
25/04/2019 amd64 18.06.3
26/04/2019 amd64 18.06.3
16/05/2019 amd64 18.06.3
06/06/2019 amd64 18.06.3
19/06/2019 amd64 18.06.3
01/07/2019 amd64 18.06.3
03/07/2019 amd64 18.06.3
01/08/2019 amd64 18.06.3
16/08/2019 amd64 18.06.3
30/08/2019 amd64 18.06.3
05/09/2019 amd64 18.06.3
17/10/2019 amd64 18.06.3
11/11/2019 amd64 18.06.3
21/11/2019 amd64 18.06.3
05/12/2019 amd64 18.06.3
18/12/2019 amd64 18.06.3
10/02/2020 amd64 18.06.3
02/03/2020 amd64 18.06.3
31/03/2020 amd64 18.06.3
26/05/2020 amd64 18.06.3
17/06/2020 amd64 18.06.3
20/08/2020 amd64 18.06.3
07/09/2020 amd64 18.06.3
16/09/2020 amd64 18.06.3
22/09/2020 amd64 19.03.12
30/09/2020 amd64 19.03.12
28/10/2020 amd64 19.03.12
19/11/2020 amd64 19.03.12
07/12/2020 amd64 19.03.14
16/12/2020 amd64 19.03.14
12/01/2021 amd64 19.03.14
28/01/2021 amd64 19.03.14
03/03/2021 amd64 19.03.15
11/03/2021 amd64 19.03.15
25/03/2021 amd64 19.03.15
28/04/2021 amd64 19.03.15
19/05/2021 amd64 19.03.15
21/05/2021 amd64 19.03.15
17/06/2021 amd64 19.03.15
28/07/2021 amd64 19.03.15
04/08/2021 amd64 19.03.15
19/08/2021 amd64 19.03.15
01/09/2021 amd64 19.03.15
27/09/2021 amd64 19.03.15
30/09/2021 amd64 19.03.15
25/10/2021 amd64 19.03.15
09/11/2021 amd64 20.10.10
25/11/2021 amd64 20.10.11
15/12/2021 amd64 & arm64 20.10.11
26/02/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.12
09/02/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.12
07/03/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.12
23/03/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.12
07/04/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.12
09/05/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.12
02/06/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.12
23/06/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.12
21/07/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.14
04/08/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.14
01/09/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.14
17/10/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.14
09/11/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.14
17/11/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.18
09/12/2022 amd64 & arm64 20.10.18
11/01/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.18
24/01/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.18
16/02/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.18
07/03/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.18
17/04/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.23
25/04/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.23
01/06/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.23
21/06/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.23
06/07/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.23
18/07/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.23
09/08/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.23
06/09/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.23
21/09/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.23
05/10/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.24
25/10/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.24
22/11/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.24
13/12/2023 amd64 & arm64 20.10.24
18/01/2024 amd64 & arm64 20.10.24
14/02/2024 amd64 & arm64 24.0.9


fli4l (flexible internet router for linux; previously: floppy isdn for linux) – a german GNU/Linux based ISDN-, DSL- and Ethernet router distribution which can be operated on hardware based on a 586 CPU with MMX extensions and above.

FLI4L is modular. This enables you to create an individual router with varying functionality.

For example packages to connect networks over the Internet using encryption (VPN), filtering potential dangers when surfing using proxies or running fli4l in a virtual machine (XEN) is possible with ease.

In addition, fli4l can easily be extended with your own packages. However, basic knowledge of Linux/Unix and reading the developer documentation is a precondition here. These extensions can then be placed in a central database.

fli4l can easily be installed on hard drives, memory cards or CDs.[28]


Frugalware is a general-purpose GNU/Linux distribution of hungarian origin, created by Miklós Vajna and designed for intermediate/medium-level users (who aren't afraid of a command terminal).

  • Early versions were based on Slackware, but it later (version 0.6) became an independently developed distribution.
  • It also uses a modified version of Arch Linux's Pacman package manager.

  • Frugalware comes with Pacman-G2 package manager. Pacman-G2 is a fork of the not-yet-released cvs version of the complete rewrite of pacman-g1 by Aurelien Foret (the old monolithic pacman-g1 is written by Judd Vinet).
  • KDE is the default desktop environment, but other desktops are also available during installation.
  • Frugalware has two branches of development: current, refreshed daily, and stable, refreshed approximately every 6 months.
  • Frugalware uses “tar.bz2” packages
  • This distribution boasts a small, dynamic community that listens to its users, many of them French (more than half of Frugalware's active developers are French).
  • In addition, Frugalware offers a modern operating system, one example is the adoption of systemd by default for Frugalware 1.5 ("Mores").


Frugalware is a distribution optimized for i686 architectures, based on binary x86 packages.

  • It also supports x86_64, PPC and ARM (from version 1.5) architectures.

Frugalware Releases History
Version Codename Release date
0.1 Genesis 02/11/2004
0.2 Aurora 28/04/2005
0.3 Trantor 13/10/2005
(for x86-64)
0.4 Wanda 30/03/2006
0.5 Siwenna 14/09/2006
0.6 Terminus 22/03/2007
0.7 Sayshell 13/10/2007
0.8 Kalgan 11/03/2008
0.9 Solaria 09/09/2008
1.0 Anacreon 22/03/2009
1.1 Getorin 07/09/2009
1.2 Locris 08/03/2010
1.3 Haven 23/08/2010
1.4 Nexon 13/02/2011
1.5 Mores 15/08/2011
1.6 Fermus 12/12/2012
1.7 Gaia 19/08/2012
1.8 Cinna 06/02/2013
1.9 Arcturus 05/11/2013
2.0 Rigel 16/02/2015
2.1 Derowd 05/09/2016

GNU Guix System

GNU Guix System or Guix System[29][30] (previously GuixSD) is a rolling release GNU/Linux distribution built around the GNU Guix package manager and developed by the GNU Project.

Guix supports transactional upgrades and roll-backs, unprivileged package management, and more.

When used as a standalone distribution, Guix supports declarative system configuration for transparent and reproducible operating systems.

It provides Guile Scheme APIs, including high-level embedded domain-specific languages (EDSLs) to define packages and whole-system configurations.

It enables a declarative operating system configuration and allows system upgrades which the user can rollback.

It uses the GNU Shepherd init system and the Linux-libre kernel, with support of the GNU HurD kernel under development.


GoboLinux is a brazilian GNU/Linux distribution created in 2002 which redefines the entire filesystem hierarchy. GoboLinux is a modular GNU/Linux distribution: it organizes the programs in your system in a new, logical way.[31]

File hierarchy

The design of GoboLinux was influenced by earlier systems such as NeXTSTEP, AtheOS, and BeOS, all of which adopted original filesystem structures while still maintaining a considerable degree of compatibility with Unix. *At the root of the GoboLinux tree, there are six directories: Programs, Users, System, Files, and Mount.

It defines a new directory hierarchy which allows the coherent management of the installed base of programs from a system. This is done exclusively through the filesystem layout, without relying on databases or package managers.

In GoboLinux, each program resides in its own directory. Each file category (executables, libraries, headers) can also be accessed through unified symlink views.

  • The filesystem is the database: Each program resides in its own directory.

The design of GoboLinux was influenced by earlier systems such as NeXTSTEP, AtheOS, and BeOS, all of which adopted original filesystem structures while still maintaining a considerable degree of compatibility with Unix. At the root of the GoboLinux tree, there are six directories: Programs, Users, System, Files, and Mount.

GoboLinux uses “Compile”, which is a program that downloads, unpacks, compiles source code tarballs, and installs the resulting executable code, all with a single command, using simple compilation scripts known as “recipes”. The Compile system is similar to Gentoo’s Portage system.

GoboLinux is available as a Live/Install DVD for i686 CPU with Enlightenment as the default desktop environment.

Started from version 016, GoboLinux is shipped with awesome window manager as default, for x86_64 machines only.

GoboLinux Releases History[32]
  • Releases have been numbered using the octal base system.
Version Release date Description
Versions prior to 005 were used only by the initial group of developers.
005 2003 First public version released online.
006 09/05/2003 Introduced GoboHide, adopted software installation with a sandbox.
007 22/10/2003 Added Resources, a per-package metadata directory.
010 07/01/2004 Added a graphical installer accessible from the LiveCD desktop environment.
011 07/06/2004 Introduced Compile, the GoboLinux package compilation tool.
012 06/06/2005 Introduced Manager, a graphical tool for system administration.
013 02/11/2006 Introduced Listener, a tool to listen for file system events and attribute to them actions to be executed automatically.
014 31/12/2007 New stable release, containing package updates, bug fixes and new versions of the GoboLinux management tools.
014.01 02/04/2008 Update of 014 focused on bug fixes.
015 07/05/2014 Introduced the /System/Index hierarchy.
016 15/12/2016 Introduced Runner, a file system virtualisation tool. First version for x86-64.
016.01 04/04/2017 Update of 016 focused on bug fixes.
017 25/05/2020


IPFire is a GNU/Linux distribution (fork of IPCop Firewall), dedicated to firewall that can be installed in any network - from data center down to your home.[33]

It is secure, fast and very versatile.

Besides from being a stateful inspection firewall it can work as a VPN gateway, analyze data packets with its Intrusion Prevention System (IPS), and comes with many Add-ons that extend its functionality further.

It is operated via an intuitive web-based interface which offers many configuration options for beginning and experienced system administrators.

IPFire is maintained by developers who are concerned about security and who update the product regularly to keep it secure. IPFire ships with a custom package manager called Pakfire and the system can be expanded with various add-ons.


Jarro Negro is a mexican GNU/Linux distribution, developed by students and professors of the Colegio de Ciencias y Humanidades (CCH) of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).

It has its own package system called JNP that keeps the distribution updated. It uses RPM as a second package system.

The first version of the distribution was based on Slackware[34], then based on Debian, and the latest is an independent development.

JarroNegro Releases History[35]
Versions Release date Desktop Software packaging
4.0.0 25/06/2021 Enlightenment JNP
3.0.0 24/02/2014 Enlightenment JNP
2.1.0 13/04/2012 Enlightenment JNP/RPM
2.0.3 26/01/2011 Enlightenment JNP/RPM
2.0.2 25/12/2008 Enlightenment JNP/RPM
2.0.1 13/04/2008 Enlightenment JNP
2.0.0 01/01/2008 Enlightenment JNP
1.1.2 05/03/2007 Gnome, Xfce, Wmaker, Icewm TGZ
1.1.1 16/09/2006 Gnome, Xfce, Wmaker, Icewm TGZ
1.0.1 10/04/2006 KDE, Xfce, Wmaker, Icewm TGZ
1.0.0 18/01/2006 KDE, Xfce, Wmaker, Icewm TGZ

Junos OS Evolved

Junos OS Evolved is a networking GNU/Linux distribution created by Juniper Networks Inc., used on Juniper Networks routing, switching and security devices, intended to create an environment to accelerate the deployment of services and applications on a single network.

While Junos OS runs on an instance of the FreeBSD operating system on a specific hardware element (e.g., the routing engine CPU), Junos OS Evolved runs on a native Linux system.

Junos OS Evolved uses a node-based model, where system refers to all nodes, including Routing Engines, Flexible PIC Concentrators (FPCs), and more. In Junos OS Evolved, a node is any component that can run the Linux kernel and Junos OS Evolved applications, and all nodes are considered compute nodes.[36]


Jurix was an early GNU/Linux distribution created by Florian La Roche.

The distribution was maintained between 1993 and 1999[37] and hosted on the now-defunct "" and "" domains.

In 1996, jurix superseded Slackware as a base for SuSE Linux.[38]

The name "jurix" was borrowed from the department's first HTTP server, named by Alexander Sigel.

It is not known whether the name was taken from the nearby Dutch law and IT organisation JURIX, or simply a portmanteau of "Jura" (meaning "law" in German) and "Unix".

At the end of 1997, maintenance and development was stopped as a disjoint distribution of S.u.S.E., although S.u.S.E. was developing a Linux distribution of its own, called SuSE Linux.

For this reason, Jurix was, in a way, the development base for SuSE Linux, and is considered the precursor distro to the latter.


The distribution had some other features, in particular an installer that was also able to perform scripted installations, making a given set of software reproducible on relatively identical machines.

Standards such as BOOTP or NFS were supported. As the central file system, ext2 was integrated into the distribution by default.

This overall package later formed the starting point for the initial version of the current SuSE Linux distribution and its successors.

In the course of further development, the person in charge of jurix also joined the SuSE company and was responsible there, for example, for the installer and the YaST configuration tool, which he wrote himself.


A readme from 1999 touts the following software, among others:[39]

  • modularized kernel 2.0.37 and 2.2.10
  • libc 5.4.46
  • egcs 1.1.2
  • ncurses 4.2-980822
  • shadow passwords
  • XFree86
  • KDE 1.1.1


KaOS is a GNU/Linux distribution that features the latest version of the KDE desktop environment, the Libre office suite, and other popular software applications that use the Qt toolkit. KaOS was created by Anke "Demm" Boersma, who initially worked on Chakra Linux, based on Arch Linux.

The first version was KdeOS 2013.9[40], released on 10/09/2013.

  • The name was changes to "KaOS" in 02/09/2013.

It was inspired by Arch Linux, but the developers build their own packages which are available from in-house repositories. The repository maintenance is pacman/makepkg.

KaOS is a desktop rolling release, built from scratch with a very specific focus:

  • One desktop environment (KDE Plasma)
  • One toolkit (Qt)
  • One architecture (x86 64)

With an emphasis on evaluating and selecting the most suitable tools and applications.[41]

The first version of KaOS was released as "KdeOS" in 2013. To prevent confusion between the distribution's name and the desktop environment KDE, the name was changed to "KaOS" in September 2013.[42]


LibreELEC is an independent GNU/Linux distribution, a fork of OpenELEC, and a "just enough OS" to run the Kodi media centre. It's built to run Kodi on current and popular hardware.

The project is an evolution of the OpenELEC project.

LibreELEC software will be familiar to OpenELEC users.

The distribution runs on x86 desktop computers, Raspberry Pi devices and ODroid and WeTek computers.


In 2015 the OpenELEC project team had a falling out with project founder @sraue over change management practices and maintenance of project infrastructure.[43]

A fork of OpenELEC announced in March 2016 as a split from the OpenELEC team after "creative differences", taking most of its active developers at the time to join the new LibreELEC project.

  • The first release was on 04/04/2016. LibreELEC releases start at 7.0.0 after the project forked from OpenELEC. The team chose to continue the existing numbering scheme.[44]

Because of the end of Python 2 support in 2020, LibreElec version 10 with Kodi 19 switches to Python 3. Therefore, addons created for prior versions with python 2 need to be updated by developers for Kodi 19 because python code is not backward compatible.

LibreELECT active derivatives[45]
  1. Lakka (Libretro)[46]
  2. RetroELEC
  3. CoreELEC [47][48]

Linux 0.12

Linux 0.12, or HJ Lu's Boot/Root, was one of the first GNU/Linux distributions in the world, created by HJ Lu in 1992.

The installation had to be done with two floppy diskettes. One for the boot, and one for the root environment3. It had no graphical user interface and no installer.

The concept was similar to today's LiveCD distributions, which work with a CD or USB key, having to edit the master boot record with a hexadecimal editor.


H.J. Lu is a computer programmer who is credited with creating the first approach to the concept of a Linux distribution in 1992, entitled Boot/Root.

  • Joe Klemmer of described the distribution as follows[49]:
    Back in late 1991, when Linux first hit the 'Net, there were no distributions per se. The closest thing was HJ Lu's Boot/Root floppies. They were 5.25" diskettes that could be used to get a Linux system running. You booted from the boot disk and then, when prompted, inserted the root disk. After a while you got a command prompt. Back in those days if you wanted to boot from your hard drive you had to use a hex editor on the master boot record of your disk. Something that was definitely not for the faint of heart. I remember when Erik Ratcliffe wrote the first instructions (this was long before HOWTO files) on how to do just that. It wasn't until later that anything you could call a real distribution appeared.

Linux From Scratch

Linux From Scratch (LFS) is a project that provides you with step-by-step instructions for building your own customized Linux system entirely from source. [50]

Linux From Scratch is a way to install a working GNU/Linux system by building all components of it manually (installing a pre-compiled Linux distribution). According to the Linux From Scratch site, the advantages to this method are a compact, flexible and secure system and a greater understanding of the internal workings of the Linux-based operating systems.[51]

Beyond Linux From Scratch (BLFS)

To keep LFS small and focused, the book Beyond Linux From Scratch (BLFS) was created, which presents instructions on how to further develop the basic Linux system that was created in LFS. It introduces and guides the reader through additions to the system including the X Window System, desktop environments, productivity software, web browsers, programming languages and tools, multimedia software, and network management and system administration tools. Since Release 5.0, the BLFS book version matches the LFS book version.

Cross Linux From Scratch (CLFS)

The book Cross Linux From Scratch (CLFS) focuses on cross compiling, including compiling for headless or embedded systems that can run Linux, but lack the resources needed to compile Linux. CLFS supports a broad range of processors and addresses advanced techniques not included in the LFS book such as cross-build toolchains, multilibrary support (32 & 64-bit libraries side-by-side), and alternative instruction set architectures such as Itanium, SPARC, MIPS, and Alpha.

The Linux from Scratch project, like BitBake, also supports cross-compiling Linux for ARM embedded systems such as the Raspberry Pi and BeagleBone.[52]

Hardened Linux From Scratch (HLFS)

The book Hardened Linux From Scratch (HLFS) focuses on security enhancements such as hardened kernel patches, mandatory access control policies, stack-smashing protection, and address space layout randomization. Besides its main purpose of creating a security-focused operating system, HLFS had the secondary goal of being a security teaching tool. It has not been updated since 2011.

Automated Linux From Scratch (ALFS)

Automated Linux From Scratch (ALFS) is a project designed to automate the process of creating an LFS system. It is aimed at users who have gone through the LFS and BLFS books several times and wish to reduce the amount of work involved. A secondary goal is to act as a test of the LFS and BLFS books by directly extracting and running instructions from the XML sources of the LFS and BLFS books.

Active LFS-based distributions
  1. Fatdog64 Linux, is a GNU/Linux distribution, formerly based on Puppy Linux. From Fatdog64-800 Alpha version, released on 16/11/2018, is based on Linux From Scratch (LFS v8.2 with CLFS 2017.17). The first version was released on 12/04/2008. Fatdog64 Linux is a small, desktop, 64-bit Linux distribution. Originally created as a "fatter" (=more built-in applications) derivative of Puppy Linux, Fatdog has grown to become an independent, mature 64-bit GNU/Linux distribution while still keeping true to Puppy Linux spirit: small, fast and efficient. Fatdog packages come in two flavors: TXZ packages (it's possible to use the gslapt package manager) and SFS packages, that contains a compressed filesystem, usually a large application or contains multiple applications or libraries.
  2. LFS EXTON is a LiveDVD/USB GNU/Linux distribution built using Linux From Scratch 10.1/11.2 and Beyond Linux From Scratch 10.1/11.2 (BLFS), which has the latest GNU/Linux packages and scripts. LFS EXTON uses LXDE as desktop environment, and has the Installer.
  3. NuTyX
Discontinued LFS-bases distributions
  1. Antomic GNU/Linux
  2. AryaLinux
  3. IPCop Firewall
  4. Lonix
  5. LRs GNU Linux
  7. TA-Linux
  8. ViruX Linux Live CD
  9. ZENIX GNU/Linux


LinuxConsole is a french GNU/Linux distribution developed by Yann Le Doaré, built from scratch and has support for multiple languages.

It is not based on any other GNU/Linux distribution and primarily focuses on being lightweight and easily accessible.

LinuxConsole can function as a live CD or live USB, or it can also be installed as a complete operating system.

Its main features are easy installation, extensive choice of software in the form of modules, and excellent hardware detection.

LinuxConsole should be written as one word. The "console" part of the word isn't related to Linux system console mode, but instead represents the ease of using a game console.

  • The earliest release version 0.4 in 2004, was based on Mandrake Linux. Version 0.4 expanded upon the previous release by adding many applications, and tools making it useful for more than just games and multimedia.
  • The first release confirmed to be independently developed was version 1.0.2007 released in 2007. It added full capability to work with partitions using the NTFS file structure via GParted. This release was thoroughly tested on several old computers using only 16MB of RAM.

LST Power Linux

LST Power Linux (LST) is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribution, it was developed by Linux Support Team (LST)​. The Linux Support Team Erlangen was a small group of students (Stefan Probst & Ralf Flaxa) from the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany.

The LST distribution’s goal was to provide a solid, reliable, easy to install (even for beginners) and well-documented system.

As early as 1993, the first distribution of the Linux Support Team saw the light of day as an independent, German offshoot/fork of Slackware.

  • LST Power Linux was the base for the Caldera OpenLinux (COL) distribution in 1997.

Lunar Linux

Lunar Linux is a source based GNU/Linux distribution. It is built entirely by compiling source code, using custom optimizations.

It installs a complete bootstrap development system first.
After telling the Lunar package manager which software will be required, it builds the entire system by downloading current source code and locally compiling an optimized system tailored toward the users specific needs.
This should result in a lean and optimized operating system.
On the downside, compiling a whole distribution from scratch may be time-consuming and complicate the task of keeping the packages up to date.

Currently, Lunar only supports the x86 and x86-64 architectures.[53]

  • This is what sets Lunar apart. It makes customization a breeze– you choose the compile options before a module is built, and install a lean and uncluttered system that has exactly what you need. Nothing more, or less.
  • Once installed, Lunar is remarkably fast, breaking new ground in flexibility and in the options it offers the individual user.[54]


In the beginning Lunar was a fork of Sorcerer Linux (SGL), by a small group of people led by Chuck Mead; The fork occurred in late January to early February of 2002 and was originally made up of a small group of people who wanted to collaboratively develop and extend the Sorcerer technology.

The original name for the project was Lunar-Penguin but the group decided to re-christen it Lunar Linux while the Lunar-Penguin name has become a sort of umbrella which the team could use if they decide to collaboratively develop something besides Lunar Linux.

  • Leadership of the Lunar Linux distribution was taken over by Auke Kok on April 22, 2004.

Mandrake - Mandriva
Mandrake Mandriva

Mandrake, laterly Mandriva Linux, is a independent discontinued GNU/Linux distribution released by the french company MandrakeSoft SA (then Mandriva) intended for both beginners and experienced users, aimed at personal computers and servers with a focus on users who are new to the world of GNU/Linux and free software.

From then on it went its own way, separate from Red Hat and included numerous proprietary or modified tools, mainly aimed at making system configuration easier.

Also this distribution was known because its packages were compiled with optimisations for Pentium processors and above, incompatible with older versions such as 386 and 486.

  • The last stable version, with then called Mandriva Linux was called Hydrogen, 2011.0 version, and was released on 29/08/2011, in a development conjunction with ROSA Linux 2011.0.
Names History
  1. Linux-Mandrake: The first release of Mandrake (Linux Mandrake 5.1, Venice) was based on Red Hat Linux 5.1 and K Desktop Environment 1 (KDE 1), on 23/07/1998.
  2. Mandrake Linux: From its inception until the release of version 8.0, Mandrake named its flagship distribution Linux-Mandrake. From version 8.1 to 9.2 the distribution name was reversed and called Mandrake Linux.
  3. mandrakelinux: In February 2004, MandrakeSoft lost a court case against Hearst Corporation, owners of King Features Syndicate. Hearst contended that MandrakeSoft infringed upon King Features' trademarked character Mandrake the Magician. As a precaution, MandrakeSoft renamed its products by removing the space between the brand name and the product name and changing the first letter of the product name to lower case, thus creating one word. Starting from version 10.0, Mandrake Linux became known as mandrakelinux.
  4. Mandriva Linux : After April 2005, Mandrake Linux changed its name to Mandriva Linux, following the merger of Mandrake and Conectiva.
Mandrake → Mandriva History

In 1998, the French company MandrakeSoft SA introduced the Mandrakelinux distribution, created by Gaël Duval, co-founder and former employee of Red Hat, Inc. Part of the name was taken from the comic strip "Mandrake the Magician", a trademark owned by the US company Hearst Holdings.

In 2003, MandrakeSoft filed a lawsuit in a French court against Hearst Holdings to cancel the "Mandrake" trademark that the latter still owned, but the court ruled in favour of Hearst and the domain names and the product were returned to their owner. This decision led to the subsequent renaming of MandrakeSoft to Mandriva and the operating system to Mandriva Linux, names derived from the merger between the Mandrake company and the Brazilian company Conectiva, which Mandrakesoft acquired in 2005.

The distribution was initially based on Red Hat Desktop 5.1, so the first version was also numbered 5.1.

It was an easy-to-use distribution for servers and workstations supplied in a downloadable and a paid version, with documentation and technical support.

The different versions were freely licensed and some special versions had programs not licensed under the GPL.

However, despite the success of the distribution, some of the employees who worked on it were laid off when Edge-IT, a support company that was acquired by MandrakeSoft in 2004, was liquidated.

In April 2005, Mandrakesoft announced the corporate acquisition of Conectiva, a Brazilian-based company that produced a GNU/Linux distribution for Portuguese-speaking (Brazil) and Spanish-speaking Latin America. As a result of this acquisition and the legal dispute with Hearst Corporation, Mandrakesoft announced that the company was changing its name to Mandriva, and that their Linux distribution Mandrake Linux would henceforward be known as Mandriva Linux.

On 18 September 2010, due to uncertainty about the future of the company, now called Mandriva, some of the developers issued a statement from Paris announcing that a fork of Mandriva Linux would be created, which was called Mageia.

In the summer of 2011, after the last release version called Hydrogen, released on 28/08/2011, Mandriva Linux was discontinued and several members of the community behind it created a new distribution, called OpenMandriva Lx. Most developers who were laid off went to Mageia.

Mandriva's bankruptcy was officially announced and the company was finally shut down on 2 June 2015.

Mandrake | Mandriva Releases History
Release Date /Version Name Major Features
Venice First release based on Red Hat Linux; KDE 1.0
Leeloo Installer updates now from Mandrake 5.1
Festen KDE 1.1; Last release with Kernel 2.0 series
Venus Kernel 2.2.9; GNOME 1.0.9
Air Includes drakxtools 1.0 and urpmi 0.9, these packages later became most notable features among Mandrake/Mandriva based distributions.
Helium Last release with KDE 1.1.x series
Odyssey (called Ulysses during beta) KDE 2.0; Last release with Kernel 2.2 series
Traktopel Kernel 2.4.3; KDE 2.1.1
Vitamin KDE 2.2.1
Bluebird Last release with KDE 2.2 series
Dolphin KDE 3.0.3; 1.0.1; Gnome 2.0.2
Bamboo Introduce "Galaxy" theme; KDE 3.1
FiveStar Last release with Kernel 2.4 series
Community and Official Kernel 2.6.3; KDE 3.2.0; Last release with XFree86 4.3
X11 r6.7.0 replaced XFree86; Use scim as unified i18n input method platform
10.2 / 2005 LE
Mandriva Linux Limited Edition 2005 Mandrake - Mandriva transition version. KDE 3.3.2; "Mandrake" brand removed from artworks(wallpaper, splash, etc.)
Mandriva Linux 2006 KDE 3.4.2; First release with Mandriva branding; Support upgrade from Conectiva; Last release with "Galaxy" theme
Mandriva Linux 2007 KDE 3.5; New theme "la Ora"; Rpmdrake package manager ui redesign; server 1.1.1
Mandriva Linux 2007 Spring First "Spring" version. 6-month release cycle is moved to a 6-month release cycle. drak3D implementation, Metisse, Compiz and Beryl integration.
Mandriva Linux 2008 Desktop according to standards. Compiz Fusion integration.
Mandriva Linux 2008 Spring Last release with KDE 3.5 series
Mandriva Linux 2009 DrakX installer redesign; KDE 4.1.2
Mandriva Linux 2009 Spring ext4 support. Automatic removal of old kernels or kernel kernels.
Mandriva Linux 2010 (Adelie) Implementation of Plymouth for graphical startup. Urpmi and URPM improve the handling of complex dependencies.
Mandriva Linux 2010 Spring (Farman)
Mandriva Linux 2010.2 Last release with Ia Ora theme
Mandriva 2011 (Hydrogen) Use fork; KDE desktop customized by Rosalab (SimpleWelcome, Stack Folder,Rocket Bar). RPM5. systemd. MandrivaSync: Service in testing phase in the cloud to store and synchronize user data.
  • Mandriva 2011 Hydrogen was developed in conjunction with ROSA Linux (ROSA 2011 Hydrogen, released on 29/08/2011).

Active Mandrake → Mandriva-based distributions
  1. PCLinuxOS, initially derived from Mandrake
  2. Mageia, a fork of Mandriva by the former laid off developers
  3. ROSA Linux, a fork of Mandriva by the former laid off russian developers.
  4. OpenMandriva Lx, a continuation of Mandriva by the community.
Discontinued Mandrake | Mandriva-based distributions
  1. Amarok Live
  2. Annvix (ex OpenSLS): Is a discontinued GNU/Linux server operating system based on Mandriva Linux. It features a number of security enhancements, such as SELinux, GCC patched with SSP stack protection, supervise-controlled services, and other features. It was active from 2003 to 2008.
  3. blackPanther OS
  4. Hubworx
  5. Ehad
  6. LINUXO Live!
  7. Mandows
  8. MCNLive
  9. Trinity Rescue Kit
  10. Turkix
  11. Virtual-Linux
  12. VNLinux

blackPanther OS

blackPanther OS is a discontinued hungarian GNU/Linux distribution based on Mandriva which borrows features from other major projects and aimed at home computer users. The distribution is designed for use at school, home and work as it contains applications for common daily tasks, such as time management, office work or media playback.

The distribution comes with the KDE Plasma desktop, it uses packages RPM and has tools borrowed from other projects, such as a graphical system configuration tool from Mandriva Linux, a driver management tool from Ubuntu.

  • It was started in 2002 by Charles K Barcza.
  • The First public version, 1.0 (Shadow) in 2003.[55]


Mageia is a french and independent GNU/Linux distribution, started in 18/09/2010 as a fork of Mandriva, by Mageia founders.

Mageia is released by the Mageia community.

Its mission is to build a great tools for people.

Unlike Mandriva, which was a commercial entity, the Mageia project is a community project and a non-profit organisation whose goal is to develop a free GNU/Linux based operating system, supported by a nonprofit organisation of elected contributors.

The first release of Mageia, Mageia 1 was released on 01/06/2011.


There are three ways to get Mageia:

  • Classic Installer: The traditional way to install Mageia. Can be used offline to install or upgrade Mageia, optionally with internet connection for updates and to retrieve more packages. Comes in two variants: 32 (I586) and 64-bit (X86_64); size of the ISOs is about 4.1GB. It contain a lot of applications and desktops to choose from, and still much more are available online.
    • Up to 167 locales are supported: Deutsch, English, Español, Français, Italiano, Português, Svenska, Nederlands, Polski, Dansk, Pусский, etc.
    • It contains Free Software and some proprietary drivers. The installer includes the capability of adding the online Mageia repositories during the installation.
  • Live Media: Mageia can run directly from DVD or USB stick without installing. Can install itself to disk but not upgrade earlier Mageia release. It's good for check out Mageia and machine compatibility - or use as a portable system. They contain the most popular applications, and comes in four variants with different desktop environments: three 64-bit systems with Plasma, GNOME and Xfce respectively, plus a 32-bit Xfce. On USB it can enable persistent storage which will be automatically used for settings, user files, updates, and added applications. For LiveDVDs, size of the ISOs is about 2.9 - 3.8GB.
  • Network Installation (Netinstall): Download quickly and immediately boot into install mode from wired network or a local disk. Minimal installer boot disk, must be connected to network and download what it install. Four variants: 32- or 64-bit, with proprietary drivers or not. Size of the ISOs is about 50MB.


The Greek term mageía (μαγεία) means enchantment, fascination, glamour, wizardry


Mageia was created in 2010 as a fork of Mandriva Linux, by a group of former employees of Mandriva S.A. and several other members of the Mandriva community.

On 02/09/2010, Edge IT, one of the subsidiaries of Mandriva, was placed under liquidation process by the Tribunal de commerce in Paris; effective September 17, all assets were liquidated and employees were let go.

The next day, on September 18, 2010, some of these former employees, who were mostly responsible for the development and maintenance of the Mandriva Linux distribution, and several community members announced the creation of Mageia, with the support of many members of the community of developers, users and employees of Mandriva Linux.


The following goals were announced in the 18 September 2010 announcement:

  • Make Linux and free and open source software accessible to all.
  • Provide integrated tools for system configuration.
  • Maintain a high level of integration between the base system, the desktop (KDE/GNOME) and applications; especially improve third-party integration (whether free or proprietary applications).
  • Target new architectures and formats.
  • Improve our understanding of computer and electronic device users.

Mageia Releases Hitory
Version /
Release Date Kernel version
1 01/06/2011-06-01
2 22/05/2012
3 19/05/2013
4 01/02/2014
4.1 20/06/2014
5 19/06/2015
5.1 02/12/2016
6 16/07/2017
6.1 05/10/2018
7.0 01/07/2019
7.1 16/07/2019
8 26/02/2021
9 27/08/2023

Myah OS

Myah OS is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribution, developed by Jeremiah Cheatham, based on Slackware only until 3.0 alpha version, released on 25/10/2007. Then was Independent developed as a LiveCD designed for desktop use. It is built with custom build scripts and optimised for the i686 processor architecture.

Myah OS was built around the KDE3 desktop and optimized for i686 processor architecture.

Myah OS offered “Full Hard Drive” install option, although there are also options for installing to USB or net-installing versions with Xfce, OpenBox, KDE 3, GNOME, KDE 4, or pure console. The system uses its own package manager.

The full KDE version featured a large set of preinstalled applications, such as: Asunder, Audacious, Audacity, Graveman, streamtuner, Xine, MPlayer, Kino, Myah DVD Creator; programs for graphical media: Blender for 3-D modeling, CinePaint, GIMP, mtPaint, Tux Paint; Dia for technical diagrams; Inkscape for scalable vector graphics; and GPicView and gtkam; office tools: Abiword and Gnumeric; network: Pidgin, Azureus, Transmission, Chatzilla, XChat, fireFTP, Firefox.

Myah OS was under development between 2005 and 2008.

Myah OS Releases History
Release Date Based On
2.2 20/09/2006 Slackware
2.3 RC1 27/09/2006 Slackware
2.3 SE 12/10/2006 Slackware
3.0 Tech Demo 1 28/03/2007 Slackware
3.0 Tech Demo 2 02/06/2007 Slackware
3.0 Alpha 1 25/10/2007 Independent
3.0 Alpha 2 25/11/2007 Independent
3.0 Beta 1 02/02/2008 Independent
(Mouse Pro)
01/06/2008 Independent
12/06/2008 Independent
KDE 3.5 DE
27/06/2008 Independent


MagOS-Linux is a russian GNU/Linux distribution, initially based on Mandriva, since first version Mag-OS Linux 20090511, released on 11/05/2019; until Mag-OS Linux 20121230 version; and then based on ROSA Linux (Rosa 2012.1 "Fresh"), since MagOS-Linux 20130124 version, due to Mandriva's bankruptcy.

  • MagOS-Linux can boot from a flash drive or LiveDVD.
  • It is practically unkillable, because is easily and safely experiment with it. It's possible compressed 2 gigabytes of already installed and configured programs.
  • Drivers for almost any computer are already installed.
  • MagOS Linux consists of independent modules from each other, even a not very experienced user can build the necessary distribution kit. The distribution can be extend with ready-made or with self-created modules.

MagOS-Linux Releases History
Version Release Date Based on
20090511 11/05/2009 Mandriva
20090621 21/06/2009 Mandriva
20090704 04/07/2009 Mandriva
20090717 17/07/2009 Mandriva
20090912 10/09/2009 Mandriva
20091011 10/10/2009 Mandriva
20091114 14/11/2009 Mandriva
20091218 17/12/2009 Mandriva
20100108 08/01/2010 Mandriva
20100308 07/03/2010 Mandriva
20100411 10/04/2010 Mandriva
20100505 04/05/2010 Mandriva
20100611 11/06/2010 Mandriva
20100711 10/07/2010 Mandriva
20100911 11/09/2010 Mandriva
20101015 13/10/2010 Mandriva
20101112 12/11/2010 Mandriva
20101213 12/12/2010 Mandriva
20110114 12/01/2011 Mandriva
20110220 19/02/2011 Mandriva
20110319 18/03/2011 Mandriva
20110413 11/04/2011 Mandriva
20110522 21/05/2011 Mandriva
20110623 22/06/2011 Mandriva
20110714 14/07/2011 Mandriva
20110924 24/09/2011 Mandriva
20111028 27/10/2011 Mandriva
20111119 18/11/2011 Mandriva
20111227 26/12/2011 Mandriva
20120120 19/01/2012 Mandriva
20120223 22/02/2012 Mandriva
20120325 25/03/2012 Mandriva
20120523 23/05/2012 Mandriva
20120624 24/06/2012 Mandriva
20120719 18/07/2012 Mandriva
20120926 26/09/2012 Mandriva
20121028 28/10/2012 Mandriva
20121130 30/11/2012 Mandriva
20121230 30/12/2012 Mandriva
20130124 24/01/2013 ROSA Linux 2012.1 (Fresh)
20130228 28/02/2013 ROSA Linux 2012 LTS
20130324 24/03/2013 ROSA Linux 2012 LTS
20130428 28/04/2013 ROSA Linux 2012.1 (Fresh)
20130529 29/05/2013 ROSA Linux
20130625 25/06/2013 ROSA Linux
20130716 16/07/2013 ROSA Linux
20130820 19/08/2013 ROSA Linux
20130929 28/09/2013 ROSA Linux
20131026 25/10/2013 ROSA Linux
20131127 27/11/2013 ROSA Linux
20131229 29/12/2013 ROSA Linux
20140125 24/01/2014 ROSA Linux
20140221 21/02/2014 ROSA Linux
20140323 23/03/2014 ROSA Linux
20140419 18/04/2014 ROSA Linux
20140516 16/05/2014 ROSA Linux
20140726 25/07/2014 ROSA Linux
20140819 18/08/2014 ROSA Linux
20140926 26/09/2014 ROSA Linux
20141025 24/10/2014 ROSA Linux
20141128 27/11/2014 ROSA Linux
20141224 24/12/2014 ROSA Linux
2015-0123 23/01/2015 ROSA Linux 2014
20150227 27/02/2015 ROSA Linux
20150328 28/03/2015 ROSA Linux
20150424 24/04/2015 ROSA Linux
20150523 23/05/2015 ROSA Linux
20150626 26/06/2015 ROSA Linux
20150718 17/07/2015 ROSA Linux
20150925 25/09/2015 ROSA Linux
20151030 29/10/2015 ROSA Linux
20151130 29/11/2015 ROSA Linux
20151228 27/12/2015 ROSA Linux
20160123 22/01/2016 ROSA Linux
20160227 26/02/2016 ROSA Linux
20160326 26/03/2016 ROSA Linux
20160423 22/04/2016 ROSA Linux
20160527 27/05/2016 ROSA Linux
20160628 27/06/2016 ROSA Linux
20160723 23/07/2016 ROSA Linux
20160824 24/08/2016 ROSA Linux
20160924 23/09/2016 ROSA Linux
20161026 25/10/2016 ROSA Linux
20161126 25/11/2016 ROSA Linux
20161225 25/12/2016 ROSA Linux
20170128 28/01/2017 ROSA Linux
20170227 27/02/2017 ROSA Linux
20170325 24/03/2017 ROSA Linux
20170423 23/04/2017 ROSA Linux
20170526 26/05/2017 ROSA Linux
20170623 23/06/2017 ROSA Linux
20170721 20/07/2017 ROSA Linux
20170827 27/08/2017 ROSA Linux
20170923 23/09/2017 ROSA Linux
20171021 21/10/2017 ROSA Linux
20171127 26/11/2017 ROSA Linux
20171222 22/12/2017 ROSA Linux 2016.1 (Fresh)
20180126 26/01/2018 ROSA Linux
20180224 24/02/2018 ROSA Linux
20180325 24/03/2018 ROSA Linux
20180427 27/04/2018 ROSA Linux
20180525 24/05/2018 ROSA Linux
20180622 22/06/2018 ROSA Linux
20180718 18/07/2018 ROSA Linux
20180825 25/08/2018 ROSA Linux
20180928 27/09/2018 ROSA Linux
20181026 25/10/2018 ROSA Linux
20181123 22/11/2018 ROSA Linux
20181222 22/12/2018 ROSA Linux
2019-0125 25/01/2019 ROSA Linux
20190222 22/02/2019 ROSA Linux
20190323 23/03/2019 ROSA Linux
20190420 19/04/2019 ROSA Linux
20190511 10/05/2019 ROSA Linux
20190625 25/06/2019 ROSA Linux
20190712 11/07/2019 ROSA Linux
20190824 23/08/2019 ROSA Linux
20190925 25/09/2019 ROSA Linux
20191024 23/10/2019 ROSA Linux
20191122 21/11/2019 ROSA Linux
20191226 25/12/2019 ROSA Linux
20200123 23/01/2020 ROSA Linux
20200220 19/02/2020 ROSA Linux
20200326 26/03/2020 ROSA Linux
20200414 14/04/2020 ROSA Linux
20200416 16/04/2020 ROSA Linux
20200508 07/05/2020 ROSA Linux
20200619 19/06/2020 ROSA Linux
20200711 10/07/2020 ROSA Linux
20200822 22/08/2020 ROSA Linux
20200925 25/09/2020 ROSA Linux
20201120 20/11/2020 ROSA Linux
20201224 24/12/2020 ROSA Linux
20210124 24/01/2021 ROSA Linux
20210223 23/02/2021 ROSA Linux
20210327 27/03/2021 ROSA Linux 2019.1
20210424 24/04/2021 ROSA Linux
20210529 29/05/2021 ROSA Linux
20210626 26/06/2021 ROSA Linux
20210720 20/07/2021 ROSA Linux
20210827 27/08/2021 ROSA Linux
20210925 25/09/2021 ROSA Linux
20211022 22/10/2021 ROSA Linux
20211127 beta version ROSA Fresh Desktop 12.1
20211225 25/12/2021 ROSA Linux
20220120 20/01/2022 ROSA Linux
20220222 22/02/2022 ROSA Linux
20220326 26/03/2022 ROSA Linux
20220423 23/04/2022 ROSA Linux
20220527 27/05/2022 ROSA Linux
20220625 25/06/2022 ROSA Linux
20220725 25/07/2022 ROSA Linux
20220823 23/08/2022 ROSA Linux
20220924 24/09/2022 ROSA Linux
20221025 25/10/2022 ROSA Linux
20221126 26/11/2022 ROSA Linux
20221225 25/12/2022 ROSA Linux
2023-0122 22/01/2023 ROSA Linux
20230223 23/02/2023 ROSA Linux
20230325 25/03/2023 ROSA Linux
20230422 22/04/2023 ROSA Linux
20230527 27/05/2023 ROSA Linux
20230623 23/06/2023 ROSA Linux
20230724 24/07/2023 ROSA Linux
20230824 24/08/2023 ROSA Linux
20230929 29/09/2023 ROSA Linux
20231028 28/10/2023 ROSA Linux
20231124 24/11/2023 ROSA Linux
20231223 23/12/2023 ROSA Linux
2024-0126 26/01/2024 ROSA Linux
20240223 23/02/2024 ROSA Linux
20240323 23/03/2024 ROSA Linux
20240428 28/04/2024 ROSA Linux

MCC Interim Linux

MCC Interim Linux was a GNU/Linux distribution.

The first released (version 0.12+) was released on February 1992[56] by Owen Le Blanc of the Manchester Computing Centre (MCC), part of the University of Manchester.

It was the first Linux distribution created for computer users who were not Unix experts and featured a menu-driven installer that installed both the Linux kernel and a set of end-user and programming tools.

The MCC first made Linux available by anonymous FTP in November 1991. Le Blanc's irritations with his early experiments with Linux, such as the lack of a working fdisk (he would later write one), the need to use multiple FTP repositories to acquire all the essential software, and library version problems, inspired the creation of this distribution.

Le Blanc claimed he referred to the distributions as "interim" because "...they are not intended to be final or official. They are small, harmonious, and moderately tested. They do not conform to everyone's taste -- what release does? -- but they should provide a stable base to which other software can be added."


Prior to its first release, the closest approximation to a Linux distribution had been H J Lu's "Boot/Root" floppy disk images from early 1992.

These were two 5¼" diskette images containing the Linux kernel and the minimum tools required to get started. So minimal were these tools that to be able to boot from a hard drive required editing its master boot record with a hex editor.

The first release of MCC Interim Linux was based on Linux 0.12 and made use of Theodore Ts'o's ramdisk code to copy a small root image to memory, freeing the floppy drive for additional utilities diskettes.

He also stated his distributions were "unofficial experiments", describing the goals of his releases as being:

  • To provide a simple installation procedure.
  • To provide a more complete installation procedure.
  • To provide a backup/recovery service.
  • To back up his (then) current system.
  • To compile, link, and test every binary file under the current versions of the kernel, gcc, and libraries.
  • To provide a stable base system, which can be installed in a short time, and to which other software can be added with relatively little effort.

Indeed, no attempt was ever made to distribute it with a wide range of software or even the X386 windowing system.

Mini Linux

Mini Linux is a minimal Linux running system consisting only of the kernel and a small init program.[57]

The project offers a script to build very small Linux environment of the x86_64 architecture, and then creates an iso image.

MontaVista Linux

MontaVista Linux (formerly named Hard Hat Linux from 2000 to 2010[58]) is a GNU/Linux distribution developen by MontaVista Software that has been enhanced to become a full real-time operating system.

The work on real-time performance has since continued to a point where MontaVista claims to support hard real-time tasks on embedded Linux as of MontaVista Linux 4.0, with response times as fast as other real-time operating systems.[59]


NixOS is a GNU/Linux distribution from Netherlands, based on the Nix package manager and build system.

NixOS uses an immutable design and an atomic update model. Its use of a declarative configuration system allows reproducibility and portability.

NixOS is configured using composable modules, and relies on packages defined in the Nixpkgs project.

It supports reproducible and declarative system-wide configuration management as well as atomic upgrades and rollbacks, although it can additionally support imperative package and user management.

In NixOS, all components of the distribution — including the Linux kernel, installed packages and system configuration files, are built by Nix from pure functions called Nix expressions.[60]

Package recipes and configurations are written in the purpose-built "Nix language" that ships with the Nix package manager.

The main difference between NixOS and other GNU/Linux distributions is that NixOS doesn't follow the Linux Standard Base file system structure.

In NixOS however /lib and /usr/lib do not exist.

Instead all system libraries, binaries, kernels, firmware and configuration files are placed in the Nix store.[61]

  • In 2003, Eelco Dolstra started Nix as a research project. Dolstra says that the purpose of the project was to achieve a system for correct software deployment. His influences included Eelco Visser, who had supervised his PhD at Utrecht University.
  • In 2006, Armijn Hemel presented NixOS as the result of his Master's thesis at Utrecht.
  • In 2015, the NixOS Foundation was founded in the Netherlands, aiming to support projects like NixOS that implement the purely functional deployment model.

NixOS Releases History
Release Version Date
NixOS 13.10 "Aardvark" 31/10/2013
NixOS 14.04 "Baboon" 30/04/2014
NixOS 14.12 "Caterpillar" 30/12/2014
NixOS 15.09 "Dingo" 30/09/2015
NixOS 16.03 "Emu" 31/03/2016
NixOS 16.09 "Flounder" 30/09/2016
NixOS 17.03 "Gorilla" 31/03/2017
NixOS 17.09 "Hummingbird" 09/2017
NixOS 18.03 "Impala" 04/04/2018
NixOS 18.09 "Jellyfish" 05/10/2018
NixOS 19.03 "Koi" 11/04/2019
NixOS 19.09 "Loris" 09/10/2019
NixOS 20.03 "Markhor" 20/04/2020
NixOS 20.09 "Nightingale" 27/10/2020
NixOS 21.05 "Okapi" 31/05/2021
NixOS 21.11 "Porcupine" 30/11/2021
NixOS 22.05 "Quokka" 30/05/2022
NixOS 22.11 "Raccoon" 30/11/2022
NixOS 23.05 "Stoat" 31/05/2023
NixOS 23.11 "Tapir" 29/11/2023


Omarine is a vietnamese GNU/Linux distribution for servers, it can also be used for desktops. It uses the RPM package management software.

Omarine offers support for x86_64 machines and desktop environments such as KDE Plasma, GNOME, LXDE and Xfce, option right at the login screen without any additional configuration.[62]

Omarine was originally based on Slackware Linux, but is now independently developed.

The servers in Omarine are configured to support security means such as krb5, sasl, ssl.


OpenELEC (short for Open Embedded Linux Entertainment Center) was a swiss discontinued GNU/Linux distribution designed for home theater PCs and based on the Kodi (formerly XBMC) media player.

  • OpenELEC applies the "just enough operating system" principle.

The idea behind OpenELEC is to allow people to use their Home Theatre PC (HTPC) like any other device one might have attached to a TV, like a DVD player or Sky box. Instead of having to manage a full operating system, configure it and install the packages required to turn it into a hybrid media center, OpenELEC is designed to be simple to install, manage and use, making it more like running a set-top box than a full-blown computer. It is designed to consume relatively few resources and to boot quickly from flash memory. OpenELEC disk images for the Raspberry Pi series and Freescale i.MX6 based devices are also available. The OpenELEC team released OpenELEC 4.0 on 5 May 2014, and this version features updated XBMC 13.0 with further updated important parts of the operating system as well as the Linux kernel updated to version 3.14 and additional device drivers. OpenELEC 4.0 also switched its init system to systemd. In March 2016, OpenELEC was forked after "creative differences", taking most of its active developers at the time to join the new LibreELEC project.

  • System size ~ 90 - 170MB
  • Minimal hardware requirements
  • Ultra fast boot
  • Simple configuration via Kodi itself
  • Plug and Play external storage

  • Kodi HTPC software – View/Manage all your media.
  • Samba server – File transfer from any PC client
  • SSH server – Remote console access for debugging
  • IR/Bluetooth Remote Control


Since 2011, the OpenELEC team usually releases a new major version, following the Kodi release schedule. Since 2014, specifics builds supporting a set of Graphics/GPU chipsets (ION, Fusion, Intel,...) are deprecated. And since version 6, x86 builds are deprecated too. Builds are currently available for x86-64 systems (as "Generic Build"), Raspberry Pi, Raspberry Pi 2, Raspberry Pi 3 and the first generation Apple TV.

  • The first release (1.0 version), kody release Dharma, was released on 20/10/2011.
  • The last release (8.0.4 version), kody release Krypton, was released on 04/06/2017[63].
OpenELEC active derivatives
  1. LibreELEC

openmamba GNU/Linux

openmamba GNU/Linux is an italian GNU/Linux distribution for personal computers (Intel i686-compatible) that can be used on notebooks, desktops and servers.

openmamba is available with two modern and always up-to-date desktop environments KDE and LXQt

  • It is not a derivative neither depends on other existing distributions
  • Uses the RPM packaging format to distribute software components
  • Uses DNF and PackageKit as updates managers
  • Supports the installation of packages from Flatpak repositories
  • Implements a rolling mechanism to deploy continuous updates to the latest software releases.[64]

OpenMandriva Lx

OpenMandriva Lx is a french GNU/Linux distribution, and a direct descendant of Mandriva Linux. A free Desktop Operating System which aims to stimulate and interest first time and advanced users alike. It has the breadth and depth of an advanced system but is designed to be simple and straightforward in use.[65]

It is maintained by the OpenMandriva Association.

OpenMandriva Lx was originally an offering of Mandriva Linux, the OpenMandriva product was created in May, 2012, when Mandriva S.A. avoided bankruptcy by abandoning the development of its consumer product to the Mandriva community. The first stable version (OpenMandriva Lx 2013 "Oxygen") was released in late 2013.

First release
  • The first version of OpenMandriva Lx was released (2013.0), released on 12/11/2013.

ROME edition
  • In January 2023 the OpenMandriva community released their "ROME" edition, a rolling distribution designed for individual users.
  • This version will always contain the latest versions of available software packages.[66]


OpenWrt ​is an embedded GNU/Linux distribution highly extensible ​for embedded devices ​(typically wireless routers).


The OpenWrt project started in January 2004. The first OpenWrt versions were based on Linksys GPL sources for WRT54G and a buildroot from the uClibc project. This version was known as OpenWrt stable release and was widely in use.

OpenWrt ​is built from the ground up to be a full-featured, easily modifiable operating system for your router. In practice, this means that you can have all the features you need with none of the bloat, powered by a Linux kernel ​that's more recent than most other distributions.[67]

The OpenWrt project was started in 2004 after Linksys had built the firmware for their WRT54G series of wireless routers with code licensed under the GNU General Public License. Under the terms of that license, Linksys was required to make the source code of its modified version available under the same license, which enabled independent developers to create derivative versions. Support was originally limited to the WRT54G series, but has since been expanded to include many other routers and devices from many different manufacturers.

Using this code as a base and later as a reference, developers created a Linux distribution that offers many features not previously found in consumer-level routers.

  • OpenWrt releases were historically named after cocktails, such as White Russian, Kamikaze, Backfire, Attitude Adjustment, Barrier Breaker and Chaos Calmer, and their recipes were included in the message of the day (motd) displayed after logging in using the command-line interface.


In May 2016, OpenWrt was forked by a group of core OpenWrt contributors due to disagreements on internal process. The fork was dubbed Linux Embedded Development Environment (LEDE), shared many of the same goals.

The schism was nominally reconciled a year later in May 2017 pending approval of the LEDE developers.

The remerger preserves the OpenWrt branding, but uses many of the LEDE processes and rules. The remerge proposal vote was passed by LEDE developers in June 2017,[48] and formally announced in January 2018. The merging process was completed before the OpenWrt 18.06 release.[68]

OviOS Linux

OviOS Linux is a specialized GNU/Linux distribution aimed at creating the fastest and easiest Linux unified storage server.

  • OviOS was the first storage system based on Linux to implement the blk_mq IO Queueing mechanism in a production environment together with the highly advanced ZFS storage filesystem.
OviOS Linux principles
  • Customizable. OviOS is highly customizable, as new packages can be added easily by building from source. The OS functionality is customizable via the options tool.
  • Independent. OviOS Linux is not based on or derived from any other Linux Distro, and is fully compatible with the Linux Standard Base.
  • Simple. OviOS simplicity means no extra software, configurations and sophistications. OviOS uses the minimal amount of applications needed to allow it to function as a storage OS. The modifications to the software included are minimal and only distro-specific.
  • Lightweight. The Linux Kernel is stripped of all drivers and modules not required for a server distro. Lightweight also means no GUI. A GUI just makes simple tasks simpler, and complex task impossible. A GUI would also require considerable amount of resources, which can be better used to serve data.
  • The goal is to keep OviOS Linux a pure storage appliance-like OS.

It targets users and admins who need a stable out-of-the-box iSCSI, NFS, SMB server, and Linux and storage engineers who want to learn how to build a system from scratch.

paldo GNU/Linux​

paldo GNU/Linux is a Upkg driven GNU/Linux distribution. It's kind of a mix of a source and a binary distribution. Even though it builds packages like a source distribution it provides binary packages.

paldo stands for "pure adaptable linux distribution" and we try to accomplish this in every package. paldo comes with very few patches against its packages. We have virtually no local changes, means every patch is one which will go upstream anyway (e.g. compile fixes) or one needed by the LFS build system to enable us to boostrap correctly.

It's very easy to make changes to the distro.

You can change every package by providing a local version of the sources and specifications you've changed.

You can even configure your system automatically through local differencial repositories.

The whole distribution is very flexible because it's built on top of Upkg.[69]

Package management system

paldo uses the Upkg package manager to update/upgrade the system and to install applications. Upkg was uniquely developed for the paldo project and is responsible for the distribution's character as a mixed source and binary based operating system. Written in C#, Upkg uses the Mono runtime to build packages from source, or to install pre-built binaries, using XML specifications that can be customized by the user. It relies on the command-line interface rather than a graphics-based user interface implementation commonly found in many desktop-oriented Linux distributions. Upkg provides dependency resolution, package indexing and automatic menu additions, although its processing time to upgrade the system and install packages, even those available through the online paldo repository, has been found to be relatively long.


PCLinuxOS is an independent GNU/Linux distribution, fork of Mandrake Linux 9.2.

Created in october 2003 by Texstar. working closely with the Live CD Project, Texstar has since developed that fork independently into a full-fledged distribution.


The precursor to PCLinuxOS was a set of RPM packages created to improve successive versions of Mandrake Linux (later Mandriva Linux). These packages were created by Bill Reynolds, a packager better known as "Texstar".

From 2000 to 2003, Texstar maintained his repository of RPM packages in parallel with the PCLinuxOnline site.

In an interview, Texstar said he started PCLinuxOS "to provide an outlet for [his] crazy desire to package source code without having to deal with egos, arrogance, and politics."

PCLinuxOS Active derivatives
  1. CAE Linux
  2. Lapix Linux
  3. Ultumix
  4. Granular Linux
  5. Amarok LiveCD
  6. PCLinuxOS MythEdition
PCLinuxOS Discontinued derivatives
  1. Granular Linux
  2. SAM Linux (formerly SAMity Linux)
  3. TinyMe
  4. Komodo Linux
  5. Linguas OS
  6. LinnexOS
  7. Linux-EduCD
  8. LINUXO Live!
  9. Phinx Desktop
  10. Rails Live CD
  11. VideoLinux


Peropesis (personal operating system) is a lituanian small-scale, minimalist, command-line-based Linux operating system. It's an incomplete system, but it's constantly being improved.

Also, it is a free operating system created from a free software, mostly distributed under the GNU GPL or BSD licenses. The Peropesis project includes the operating system itself and this website, that contains all the necessary information about this operating system.[70]

Photon OS

Photon OS is an open source Linux container host optimized for cloud-native applications, cloud platforms, and VMware infrastructure. Photon OS provides a secure run-time environment for efficiently running containers.

Photon OS is a minimalistic GNU/Linux distribution container host optimized for cloud-native applications, cloud platforms, and VMware infrastructure; but can also be used in other environments. Developed and released by WMware in 2015, the main function of the operating system is container deployment. Photon OS contains a small number of packages and provides users with a command line interface.

  • The default installation typically requires less than 100 MB of memory to run.
  • The operating system comes with Docker pre-installed. Photon OS is compatible with ARM64, x64 and Raspberry Pi architectures.
  • The advantages are that it includes a kernel optimized to work with VMware's ESXi hypervisor, as well as being a complete security hardened system, as it uses the Kernel Self Protection Project (KSPP) recommendations. *VMware provides regular security updates for container packages such as Docker and Kubernetes, and there are also curated packages and repositories.
  • The packages are built with hardened security features. Photon's resident Daemon program manages the firewall, network, packages and users on remote Photon OS machines via API accesses such as a command-line utility, Python or REST.

Photon OS supports persistent volumes to store cloud-native application data on VMware vSAN . With Lightwave integration, users are authenticated and authorized via Active Directory or LDAP. All available VMware environments use the Photon OS distribution and therefore this is one of the most popular and widely used Linux operating systems in the world.

Pisi Linux

Pisi Linux is a turkish end-user oriented GNU/Linux distribution based on the old Pardus Linux 2011 version, with its famous PiSi package management system, providing computer users with great ease in installation, configuration and use, and aiming to meet their main desktop requirements.

It's an operating system for desktop computer with software for listening to music, browsing the Internet and creating documents. Pisi Linux is built from scratch on a stable base, but many core user applications, such as the Firefox web browser or the VLC media player, are kept constantly up to date. To increase the distribution's user friendliness, Flash player and many multimedia codecs are installed and pre-configured for immediate use.

Pisi Linux, which is being developed by the Anka team, was released version 1.2 on July 10, 2015. With version 2.1, which will bring major changes after version 1.2, which contains more than 6000 updated packages, all packages have been migrated to new versions and many bugs have been fixed, thus increasing the speed and stability of Pisi Linux.

  • It is an end-user oriented GNU/Linux distribution.
  • It aims to provide its users with a Linux experience as free as possible, using a graphical interface.
  • It aims to contribute to the free software world by developing the projects it has inherited and by enabling the development of new projects.
  • It does not plan to release a Server or Enterprise version.
  • For now it only supports x86-64 architecture.
  • It uses a main release nomenclature of 1, 2, 3 and intermediate release nomenclature of 1.1, 1.2, 1.3.
  • It provides up-to-date and stable applications.

PLD Linux Distribution

PLD Linux Distribution is a polish, free, RPM-based Linux distribution, created in 1998, aimed at the more advanced users and administrators, who accept the tradeoffs of using a system, that might require manual tweaking in exchange for much flexibility. Simultaneous availability for a wide variety of architectures and non-conservative approach to RPM usage provides our users with a consistent environment on almost all available architectures.[72]


Unlike other big distributions, there is no commercial support behind PLD Linux. The developer community consists of various enthusiasts who wish to donate their time and knowledge for the common good of PLD Linux. There is no specific ideology behind PLD-Linux, we just want to have a fast, stable and flexible environment to work in.

PLD Linux started in 1998 as a package repository for another distribution. It soon grew enough to become a self sustaining distribution and has acted as one for the past couple of years. Currently it is one of the most active open source projects in the world and provides a constant flow of feedback to the rest of the FLOSS world.

PLD Features[74]
  • Modular kernel: PLD kernels are build using modules. No more make menuconfig to make the kernel more stable or faster. You are free to pick which modules to load depending on hardware you want to use.
  • Easy package management: PLD use 'poldek package management, a powerfull command line utility will automatically resolve dependencies letting you know if there are any conflicting applications, fetch all the files needed and perform the installation.
  • Desktop systems: PLD gives the power of choice. Currently there are several desktop environments available: Gnome, KDE3 and KDE4, Xfce, WindowMaker, blackbox and fluxbox.
Binary package distribution

Unlike Gentoo, PLD provides binary packages optimized for a specific system's architecture. No asking users to log out just to get enough CPU power to compile that office package upgrade. Configuration files are safe, because several kinds of triggers and RPM magic to make sure files are left intact.

Plop Linux

Plop Linux is a german and small GNU/Linux distribution, developed by Elmar Hanlhofer, that can boot from CD, DVD, USB flash drive (UFD), USB hard disk or from network with PXE. It is designed to rescue data from a damaged system, backup and restore operating systems, automate tasks, etc.


Plop Linux is designed for advanced Linux users. Can be use as:

  • Live version to boot from CD/DVD, USB and network
  • Desktop installation
  • Server (LAMP, mail, media server, and so on)

The desktop version is available for i486, x86_64, ARMv6l.

The first release of Plop Linux was in 2003[76]


Plop Linux is a distribution built from scratch. The Live version can boot from CD, DVD, USB flash drive (UFD), USB hard disk or from network with PXE.[77]

Puppy Linux

Puppy Linux is an independent based distribution and family of light-weight GNU/Linux distribution that focus on ease of use and minimal memory footprint, for the home-user computers.

It was originally created by Barry Kauler in 2003, and then Larry Short, Mick Amadio and Puppy community (current).

Puppy Linux was initially based on Vector Linux but then became a fully independent distribution[78]

The entire system can be run from random-access memory (RAM) with current versions generally taking up about 600 MB (64-bit), 300 MB (32-bit), allowing the boot medium to be removed after the operating system has started.

  • Ready to use: All tools for common daily computing usage already included.
  • Ease of use
  • Relatively small size: 300 MB or less.
  • Fast and versatile
  • Customisable within minutes (remasters).
  • Different flavours (optimised to support older computers, newer computers).
  • Variety: hundreds of derivatives (“puplets”), one of which will surely meet your needs.

Puppy Linux is a collection of multiple Linux distributions, built on the same shared principles, built using the same set of tools, built on top of a unique set of puppy specific applications and configurations and generally speaking provide consistent behaviours and features.

There are generally three broad categories of Puppy Linux distributions:

  • Official Puppy Linux distributions: Maintained by Puppy Linux team, usually targeted for general purpose, and generally built using Puppy Linux system builder (called Woof-CE).
  • Woof-built Puppy Linux distributions: Developed to suit specific needs and appearances, also targeted for general purpose, and built using Puppy Linux system builder (called Woof-CE) with some additional or modified packages.
  • Unofficial derivatives (“puplets”): Usually remasters (or remasters of remasters), made and maintained by Puppy Linux enthusiasts, usually targeted for specific purposes.

Active Puppy Linux based distributions
  1. Arch32Pup-20.05+0 & Arch32Pup-20.05+6 & Arch64Pup-20.05+0 & Arch64Pup-20.05+6: Are GNU/Linux distributions based on Puppy Linux, built from 32 & 63 bits Arch Linux packages. These are distributions developed by PeeBee
  2. BionicPup64 (UPup): Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on 64 bit Puppy Linux built with traditional Woof-CE from Ubuntu 18.04.6 LTS (Bionic Beaver) binaries. LXDE is the desktop environment. This is a distribution developed by PeeBee
  3. BionicPup32 (UPupBB32): : Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on 32 bit Puppy Linux built with traditional Woof-CE from Ubuntu 18.04.6 LTS (Bionic Beaver) binaries. LXDE is the desktop environment. This is a distribution developed by PeeBee
  4. BookwormPup32: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux 32-bit built with Debian 12 components. It's configuration is closely based on that of BookwormPup64. This is a distribution developed by PeeBee
  5. BookwormPup64: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, it was build with traditional Woof-CE of Puppy Linux based on 64-bit Debian 12.5 binaries. BW64 provides legacy FrugalPup installers but also supports external installers such as Unebootin and Rufus when creating bootable USB media in UEFI and MBR modes. This distribution is developed by Radky.
  6. BusterPup 8.0 CE: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, It was built with traditional Woof-CE, based on 32-bit Debian 10 (Buster) binary packages. It was JWM window manager or optional FbPpanel/Openbox environment. This distribution is developed by Radky.
  7. DebianDog: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, built from a very small Debian LiveCD, then from Debian Live, not from Woof-CE Puppy creation tool.
  8. Devuanpup: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, based on Devuan. It brings 2 desktops to choose: JWM and Openbox with tint2. This distribution is developed by josejp2424.
  9. Dpup: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, based on Debian 10 (Buster). It has the following desktop environments: 32 bits: Openbox, Xfce 4 and JWM; 64 bits: Openbox, LXDE and MATE. This distribution is developed by josejp2424.
  10. Dpup Stretch 7.5RC is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux and Debian stable components (binaries). Dpups are created with Debian package compatibility, usually using the Woof-CE Puppy creation tool. It was built with 32-bit Debian Stretch binary packages. Default JWM window manager or optional fbpanel with openbox. This distribution is developed by Radky.
  11. DragonPup
  12. EcoPup
  13. eBoxPup
  14. Empty Crust
  15. eXpand Barbie
  16. eXpand DOFUS
  17. F96-CE is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, full featured, also based on a woof-CE built Fossapup64. Created using Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa binaries and repositories, F96-CE is Ubuntu compatible.
  18. Fat Free
  19. Fire Hydrant
  20. FocalPup32 (UPup): Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux built from 32-bit Ubuntu Focal Fossa (LTS 20.04) + some Debian Bullseye/Buster components. LXDE is the desktop environment. This is a distribution developed by PeeBee
  21. Foxpup
  22. JusticeLeague Linux
  23. JammyPup32 (UPup): Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux built from 32-bit Ubuntu Jammy Jellyfish (22.04) + some Debian Bullseye components. This is a distribution developed by PeeBee
  24. KDEPuppy
  25. Latest Xfce Puppy
  26. LightHouse Pup
  27. LxPup
  28. Molinux Zero
  29. NoblePup32 (UPup): Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux built from 32-bit Ubuntu Noble Numbat (LTS 24.04) & Debian 12 components. LXDE is the desktop environment. This is a distribution developed by PeeBee.
  30. NOP, or Puppy NOP (Nearly Office Pup)
  31. Puppy Night
  32. Puppy-es
  33. PuppEX (PuppEX Bookworm64/Jammy64/Slack64/Focal64 Linux):
  34. S15Pup64: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, built from 64-bit Slackware-15.0 components. LXDE is the desktop environment. This is a distribution developed by PeeBee.
  35. S15Pup32: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, built from 32-bit Slackware-15.0 components. LXDE is the desktop environment. This is a distribution developed by PeeBee.
  36. Slacko64: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, built using the Puppy Linux Woof-CE Builder, from Slackware64-14.2 binary TXZ packages, hence has binary compatibility with Slackware and access to the Slackware and Salix repositories.
  37. Slacko32: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, built using the Puppy Linux Woof-CE Builder, from Slackware32-14.2 binary TXZ packages, hence has binary compatibility with Slackware and access to the Slackware and Salix repositories.
  38. ToOpPy Linux
  39. Vanilla Dpup: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux and Debian 10 & 9.3.
  40. Vanilla Upup: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux built from Ubuntu 22.04 packages.
  41. VoidPup 32 & 64 bits (both): Are GNU/Linux distributions based on 32 and 64 bit (respectively) Puppy Linux built with traditional Woof-CE from Void Linux binaries. Void is a rolling release distro, each VoidPup release is a snapshot and will become out of date over time. LXDE is the desktop environment. These are distributions developed by PeeBee

LxPup is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux, developed by PeeBee, using the LXDE desktop environment and is an updated “descendent” of loukitchou’s LxPup13.01.

LxPup offers the Openbox window manager, LxPanel panel manager and PCManFM file manager.

LxPup combines all the significant advantages of Puppy Linux - small iso size, extensive hardware support, wide range of applications built-in, live cd and frugal installs, friendly supportive user forum etc etc, with the lightweight but modern LXDE desktop environment.

LxPup Favors

There are various flavors of LxPup some built as derivatives of official Puppy Linux builds (based on Slackware and Ubuntu components) and one a new Woof-CE build (Slackware based). The various flavors offer different kernels and access to the software repositories of the base system.

Version /
Based on
Openbox, Woof-CE build using Slackware-Current components
Openbox, Slackware-Current components
LxPup (32-bit) LXDE, Ubuntu components + some Debian components

Discontinued Puppy Linux-based distributions
  1. Anitaos
  2. ASRI Edu
  3. BareBones
  4. Biebian
  5. BioPuppy
  6. BTP
  7. BonsaiOS
  8. ChemPup
  9. Chinese Puppy
  10. DAZOS
  11. DCL
  12. Digipup
  13. EduPup
  14. Fafik
  15. Fatdog64 Linux], from 28/02/2019, is based on Linux From Scratch (LFS)
  16. Gamepup
  17. GioveLUG
  18. Grafpup Linux
  19. Gubian
  20. Hacao Linux
  21. Legacy OS, until 2017.
  22. Librepup
  23. Macis
  24. Macpup: I was a small, light GNU/Linux distribution based on Puppy Linux. It used Enlightenment as the default window manager and provided a user interface resembling that of Apple's Mac OS X.
  25. MyWolfe
  26. NetLinx
  27. Pinoy Linux
  28. [Puppy Arcade]: It was a retro gaming distro, supports many retro consoles and platforms.
  29. Puppy Gnome
  30. PuppyRus
  31. Quirky
  32. Saluki Linux
  33. ScPup: 32 and 64 bit. Released on Dec/2018. Based on Slackware-Current. ScPup provided Woof-CE Puppy Linux builds using Slackware-Current components. With JWM as the desktop/panel/window manager and ROX as the file manager. The builds use the same configurations as LxPupSc with the exception of no LXDE. The look and feel is similar to UPupBB. These are distributions developed by PeeBee.
  34. Simplicity Linux: It was a fast, well-rounded distro, multiple flavours (Xfce, LDXE, others).
  35. SlimPup Linux
  36. studio: It was a music production focused Puppy with excellent performance.
  37. Succi
  38. TahrPup: Released on Oct/2014. Based on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Tahr).
  39. TahrPup64: Released on Dec72014. Based on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Tahr).
  40. Toutou Linux
  41. Razor Puppy
  42. Ruse Linux
  43. XenialPup: Released on April/2016. Based on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial) i686.
  44. XenialPup64: Released on June/2016 . Based on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial) amd64.
  45. XOpup

rlxos GNU/Linux

rlxos GNU/Linux (rlxos, pronounced as "r-e-l-e-a-x" or "r-l-x-o-s")[80] is an independent GNU/Linux distribution which runs on an immutable filesystem (safely mutable), privacy oriented, rolling release, developed from scratch, with focus on making a usable Immutable distribution. The project features the Distrobox container manager to facilitate running software from multiple other distributions. It also includes support for Flatpak and includes the Bolt AI assistant.

The first release of rlxos was on 12/07/2020, version releax OS 0.5 beta.[81]

  • Independent: Built from scratch to have better control over the core and working.
  • Immutable: Immutable at its core and changes can be layered up.
  • Xfce: A beautiful, lightweight and highly modular desktop environment to boost your productivity.
  • Rolling release: With our CI/CD rlxos provides stable rolling releases without need of re-installation.
  • Swupd: Software Updater daemon to manage safe updates and package layering (unavailable on stable release); simple, in-house developed package manager, which provides a safe way to add layers/packages without breaking system.
  • Ignite: Tool to build custom rlxos ostree branches, package layers and/or full installer ISO in a safe isolated Linux container environment.
  • The Ostree provides a git like model to manage root file system. And ensure safe and atomic transition between different versions.

ROCK Linux

ROCK Linux is an austrian discontinued distribution. It also has a Live CD for the installation of a desktop distribution. It also has its own package repository.

  • ROCK was a set of software development tools for creating operating system solutions. You could set up a personal version of ROCK and easily create your own distribution directly from the source code. Most ROCK Linux development was done on ix86 hardware, but ROCK Linux also supported Alpha AXP, PowerPC, Sparc32/Sparc64, and MIPS architectures.
Active Rock Linux-based distributions
  1. T2 SDE

ROSA Linux

ROSA Linux is independent russian GNU/Linux distribution, originaly was based on Mandriva, and developed by LLC NTC IT ROSA.

The first release ROSA 2011 Hydrogen, released on 29/08/2011, was developed in conjunction with Mandriva (Mandriva 2011 Hydrogen), which was the last release prior to Mandriva's bankruptcy.

  • ROSA Linux then continued its development independently.

The ROSA company was founded in early 2010 and released the first version of its operating system in December 2010. It initially targeted enterprise users only, but in late 2012, ROSA started its end-user oriented distribution, Desktop Fresh. Before its bankruptcy, Mandriva developed its last releases jointly with ROSA.

  • Mandriva 2011 was also based on ROSA.

Although its main popularity is in the russian language market, ROSA Desktop also received favorable reviews by several non-Russian online publications. German technology website praised ROSA for its stability and hardware support, while called ROSA "a real Powerhouse".


ROSA Linux comes in 3 different variations targeting home users, enterprise users, and enterprise servers.

  • ROSA Fresh: The home edition comes with day-to-day software packages to make things easier for regular computer users. It is available in different flavors, including GNOME, KDE 4, Plasma 5, and MATE desktop.
  • ROSA Enterprise Desktop (RED): Is an enterprise-quality operating system that targets organizations having strict security requirements.
  • ROSA Linux Enterprise Server(RLES): Is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and integrates server solution components developed by ROSA Lab.

ROSA Linux Releases History
Version Desktop environment Release date
Desktop 2010.2.2
based on Mandriva 2010.2
KDE 01/12/2010
2011 "Hydrogen"
Developed in conjunction with
Mandriva 2011 "Hydrogen"
2012 LTS "Marathon" 10/05/2012
Desktop.Fresh 2012 18/12/2012
Desktop Fresh R1 KDE, LXDE, GNOME beta 30/05/2013, 17/06/2013, 10/07/2013
Desktop Fresh R2 KDE, GNOME 29/11/2013, 21/01/2014
Desktop Fresh R3 KDE, GNOME 25/04/2014, 01/11/2014
Desktop Fresh R4 KDE, LXDE 08/10/2014
Desktop Fresh R5 KDE, LXDE, GNOME 23/12/2014
Desktop Fresh R6 KDE 16/07/2015
Desktop Fresh R7 KDE 4, KDE 5, LXQt 19/01/2016
Desktop Fresh R8 KDE 4, KDE 5, GNOME 3, MATE 01/08/2016
Desktop Fresh R8.1 KDE 4 21/02/2017
Desktop Fresh R9 KDE 4, KDE 5, GNOME 3, LXQt 1st half of 2017
Desktop Fresh R10 KDE Plasma 5, KDE Plasma 4, LXQt 04/12/2017
Desktop Fresh R11 KDE Plasma 5, KDE Plasma 4, Xfce, LXQt 14/03/2019
Desktop Fresh R11.1 KDE Plasma 5, KDE Plasma 4, Xfce, LXQt 23/04/2020
Fresh 12 KDE Plasma 5 12/10/2021
Fresh 12.1 KDE Plasma 5, GNOME 41 12/11/2021
Fresh 12.2 KDE Plasma 5, GNOME 41, LXQt 14/02/2022
Fresh 12.3 KDE Plasma 5, GNOME 42, LXQt, Xfce 31/11/2022
Fresh 12.4 KDE Plasma 5, GNOME 42, LXQt, Xfce 29/03/2024
Fresh 12.5 KDE Plasma 5, GNOME 42, LXQt, Xfce 02/03/2024
Fresh 12.5.1 KDE Plasma 5, GNOME 42, LXQt, Xfce 27/04/2024
Active ROSA Linux-based distributions
  1. MagOS-Linux
rPath Linux

rPath Linux​ (formerly Specifix Linux) is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribution developed by rPath Inc., and built with the Conary distributed software management system, created by ex-Red Hat engineers, to both showcase the abilities Conary provides and to provide a starting point for customisation.

  • Conary was designed, based on many years of GNU/Linux software packaging and distribution development experience, to automate many of the tasks that have made it difficult to build GNU/Linux distributions. Conary it replaces traditional package management solutions (such as RPM and dpkg) with one designed to enable loose collaboration across the Internet.

rPath's mission was to provide system software that is easily tailored to suit unique application needs.

rPath Linux, built with the Conary distributed software management system, was not only a distribution in its own right, but also a base technology explicitly designed to enable you to create purpose-built operating system images using the rBuilder Online technology.

rPath Linux was distributed with the Anaconda system installer.

In November, 2012, rPath was acquired by SAS Institute. Shortly after the acquisition, rPath Linux was discontinued.

History of rPath Inc.

rPath was founded in April 2005, and was originally known for packaging applications as virtual appliances for its independent software vendors (ISVs) and end-user customers. It was co-founded by Erik Troan, co-author of Red Hat Package Manager (RPM), a popular Linux package management system. Troan had left Red Hat in 2004 to create a company called Specifix.

The first CEO was Bill Marshall. Original investors were North Bridge Venture Partners and General Catalyst Partners, with $6.4 million in funding disclosed in September 2005. A $9.1 million investment in February 2007 including a new investor Wakefield Group was disclosed. A $10 million investment was disclosed on June 24, 2008. A $7 million investment was disclosed during October, 2010. The company was headquartered in Raleigh, North Carolina.

rPath was one of the first companies to market a software appliance. In 2009, rPath made a transition to selling its products to enterprise IT organizations. IT automation was seen as the codification of runbooks by some, but rPath industrialized the operational aspects of the data center by modelling software configurations. rPath provided a commercial version control platform for deployed software systems. rPath was not a source code management system, but rather, an operational management system that applies the principles and disciplines of source code control to the management of deployable software systems—specifically, system manifests, packages, binaries, policies and system configurations. Version control aids systems to be quickly reproduced, patched and updated, rollback-ed and reported on.

rPath provided a system inventory. This inventory described the desired state of every file, binary, application component, and software stack on every production system—with complete information about applied policies and dependencies—as version-controlled system manifests. These manifests were actionable models for managing the complete lifecycle of deployed systems, providing the basis for understanding change impact and controlling change. Also, rather than applying universal updates, patches and updates could be targeted to only the systems that require change.

rPath allowed definition of systems as layered variants of common base platforms. For example, the standard corporate web server stack may start with a standard build of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) but add a specific custom version of the Apache HTTP Server and remove all availability of FTP. With this feature, rPath enabled IT groups to define and automatically enforce build-time policies that govern how systems are constructed.

When rPath imported new or existing software artefacts into system version control, it automatically analyzed each software artifact to discover its entire software supply chain, including operating system (OS) components, middleware and libraries. This information enabled build-time system construction, validation and reduced the number of maintenance failures and outages that result from missing dependencies and conflicting components. "Ovum considers the automated dependency-checking capability to be an extremely useful and often overlooked feature that all such tools should employ." rPath ensured a consistent system definition, eliminating the risk of system "drift" between lifecycle stages and enabling a clean software build environment.

rPath developed Conary, an open-source software package management and configuration software that formed the core of rBuilder.[19] It allowed rollbacks, incremental ("changeset") updates, and distributed downloading which removes the need for programs such as apt or yum.

rPath supported Microsoft Windows Server 2008 and 2003, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 and 5, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10, and CentOS. It was also marketed as software as a service.

The NRE Alliance was a coalition of newScale, rPath and Eucalyptus Systems to promote private and hybrid cloud computing. The coalition was announced on August 24, 2010. It had an live web site through August 2012.

On November 30, 2012, the business analytics company SAS Institute announced that it acquired key rPath assets, including technology and staff.

rPath Releases History
Release Date Version
2004-08-27 Specifix Linux 0.6 (Alpha)
2004-09-03 Specifix Linux 0.7 (Alpha)
2004-09-14 Specifix Linux 0.8 (Alpha)
2004-09-17 Specifix Linux 0.9 (Alpha)
2004-09-29 Specifix Linux 0.10 (Alpha)
2004-10-10 Specifix Linux 0.11 (Alpha)
2004-10-18 Specifix Linux 0.12 (Alpha)
2004-10-26 Specifix Linux 0.13 (Alpha)
2004-11-23 Specifix Linux 0.15 (Alpha)
2004-12-03 Specifix Linux 0.16 (Alpha)
2004-12-11 Specifix Linux 0.17 (Alpha)
2005-01-06 Specifix Linux 0.19 (Alpha)
2005-02-09 Specifix Linux 0.21 (Alpha)
2005-03-06 Specifix Linux 0.22 (Alpha)
2005-04-09 Specifix Linux 0.23 (Alpha)
2005-06-03 rpath Linux 0.24 (Alpha)
2005-06-28 rpath Linux 0.25 (Alpha)
2005-09-11 rPath Linux 0.51 (Alpha)
2005-10-07 rPath Linux 0.60 (Beta)
2005-10-28 rPath Linux 0.70 (Beta)
2005-11-18 rPath Linux 0.99.0 (Beta)
2005-11-23 rPath Linux 0.99.1 (Beta)
2005-12-10 rPath Linux 0.99.2 (Beta)
2005-12-22 rPath Linux 0.99.3 (Beta)
2006-02-03 rPath Linux 0.99.4 (Beta)
2006-02-04 rPath Linux 0.99.5 (Beta)
2006-02-09 rPath Linux 0.99.6 (Beta)
2006-02-16 rPath Linux 1.0
2006-03-28 rPath Linux 1.0.1
2006-05-13 rPath Linux 1.0.2
2006-06-22 rPath Linux 1.0.2 Live CD
2006-07-18 rPath Linux 1.0.3
2006-10-07 rPath Linux 2 Alpha
2006-10-31 rPath Linux 1.0.4
2006-12-05 rPath Linux 1.0.5
2007-02-07 rPath Linux 2 Alpha 2
2007-04-12 rPath Linux 2 Alpha 3
2007-05-15 rPath Linux 1.0.6
2007-10-13 rPath Linux 1.0.7
2007-10-18 rPath Linux 2 Alpha 4
2008-01-29 rPath Linux 2 Beta 1
2008-04-11 rPath Linux 2.0 Beta 3
2008-05-16 rPath Linux 2.0

SCO Linux

SCO Linux (formerly Caldera Open Linux, by Caldera International) is a discontinued distribution, developed by SCO Group (SCO), powered by United Linux, originally based on the german LST Power Linux distribution.

The SCO Group (SCO) is a provider of software solutions for small- to medium-sized businesses (SMBs) and replicated branch offices.

SCO solutions include UNIX and Linux platforms; management, messaging, and e-business tools; and services that include technical support, education, consulting, and solution provider support programs. Based in Lindon, Utah, SCO has a worldwide presence with offices in 18 countries and representation in 82 countries.

SCO solutions are divided into three broad areas: operating systems, extended platform and services.

SCO's Operating Systems encompass SCO's UNIX and Linux platforms. SCO operating systems offer the performance, scalability and confidence of UNIX and the flexibility and reliability of Linux.

SCO operating systems include SCO Linux Server, SCO UnixWare and SCO OpenLinux.

Note: On 15 May 2003, SCO suspended the distribution of its Linux-based operating systems, claiming intellectual property infringments.

SCO Linux - Discontinued derivatives
  1. Lycoris Desktop/LX, (ex Redmond Linux): Lycoris Desktop/LX: Formerly Redmond Linux, late in 2001, then Lycoris Desktop/LX, in january 2002; based on Caldera OpenLinux Workstation 3.1, developed by Lycoris. Last version: 1.4, 2004. Its assets were acquired by Mandriva, on june 15, 2005.

SliTaz GNU/Linux

SliTaz GNU/Linux (SliTaz stands for Simple, Light, Incredible, Temporary Autonomous Zone) is a independent GNU/Linux distribution, working completely in memory from removable media such as a CD-ROM or USB key.

  • It is light, speed and fully installable on a hard drive.
  • SliTaz is distributed in the form of a LiveCD that you can easily burn to a cdrom and boot from. When the system is running you can eject the LiveCD and use your CD drive for other tasks.
  • The Live system provides a fully-featured, working graphical distro and lets you keep your data and personal settings on persistent media.
  • The system can be extended with the Tazpkg package manager and security updates are provided for the cooking and stable versions.

The default ISO image provides 4 flavors: base, just-x, gtk-only and the full desktop. SliTaz can also be booted from the web, customized to match any needs and installed on a wide range of devices from old computers, to powerful servers and small ARM devices such as the Raspberry Pi.[82]

  • Root filesystem taking up about 100 MB and ISO image of less than 40 MB.
  • Ready to use Web/FTP server powered by Busybox with CGI support.
  • Browse the Web with Midori, Firefox or Lynx in text mode.
  • Sound support provided by Alsa mixer, audio player and CD ripper/encoder.
  • Chat, mail and FTP clients.
  • SSH client and server powered by Dropbear.
  • Database engine with SQLite.
  • Generate a LiveUSB device.
  • Tools to create, edit or burn CD or DVD images.
  • Elegant desktop with Openbox running on the top of Xorg/Xvesa (X server).
  • Homemade graphical boxes to command line utilities.
  • 4967 packages easily installable from the mirror.
  • Active and friendly community.

Discontinued SliTaz GNU/Linux derivatives
  1. Ophcrack LiveCD

Softlanding Linux System

Softlanding Linux System (SLS) is a discontinued canadian GNU/Linux distribution which was the first to actually include the X Window system that actually ran a GUI environment.[84]

  • The first version, created by Peter MacDonald, was released on 12/08/1992.[85]
  • SLS was the first release to offer a comprehensive GNU/Linux distribution containing more than the Linux kernel, GNU, and other basic utilities, including an implementation of the X Window System and TCP/IP.[86]

  • SLS was the most popular Linux distribution at its time, but it was considered to be rather buggy by its users.
  • It was soon superseded by Slackware (which started as a cleanup of SLS by Patrick Volkerding) and Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X.
  • Ian Murdock's frustration with SLS led him to create the Debian project.[87]


The main objectives of the SLS were:

  • Provide an initial installation program (for the queasy).
  • Utilities compiled to use minimal disk space.
  • Provide a reasonably complete/integrated U*ix system.
  • Provide a means to install and uninstall packages.
  • Permit partial installations for small disk configs.
  • Add a menu driven, extensible system administration.
  • Take the hassle out of collecting and setting up a system.
  • Give non internet users access to Linux.
  • Provide a distribution that can be easily updated.


Solus (ex Evolve OS), is an irish GNU/Linux distribution built from scratch, designed for x86-64 architecture and it has a semi-rolling release model, with new package updates landing in the stable repository every Friday.

It uses a forked version of the PiSi package manager from Pardus Linux, maintained as "eopkg" within Solus, and a custom desktop environment called "Budgie", developed in-house.

  • The Budgie desktop, which can be set to emulate the look and feel of the GNOME 2 desktop, is tightly integrated with the GNOME stack.

The developers of Solus have stated that Solus was intended exclusively for use on personal computers and will not include software that is only useful in enterprise or server environments. ---

  • On September 20, 2015, Ikey Doherty announced Solus 1.0, codenamed Shannon.
  • In July 2016, Solus announced the intention to discard the concept of fixed point releases and to embrace a rolling release model.


  • In January 2023, Solus infrastructure suffered an outage which lasted until April 2023. This outage brought down their website, forums, and development platform required to update the system. Their website was restored by moving it from internal infrastructure to GitHub Pages on February 27, 2023.
  • On April 16, in a post on Reddit entitled "Righting the ship", Josh Strobl announced a series of measures aimed at restoring order to the project.
  • This was followed by a blog post "A New Voyage" which provided more detail about the new personnel, and announced the intention to explore re-basing Solus on Serpent OS (Ikey Doherty, known mainly for being the creator of the Solus distribution and also for having collaborated on Linux Mint).
  • Their development infrastructure and forums were restored alongside that announcement and build infrastructure on April 20.


Sorcerer Linux is a discontinued distribution which was a source-based Linux distribution. The distribution downloaded and compiled source code to install and update installed software.

Active Sourcerer-based distributions
Active Development
  1. Lunar Linux
  2. Source Mage GNU/Linux

Source Mage GNU/Linux

Source Mage (or SMGL in abbreviated form) is a source-based GNU/Linux distribution based on a sorcery metaphor of "casting" and "dispelling" programs, which we refer to as "spells", and a package manager called "Sorcery". Our packages are designed to allow the user to customize the package any way they want (custom CFLAGS, LDFLAGS, ./configure flags, etc.) as well as offering as many of the package options as possible to the user up-front (you will not need to know what options a package has or what optional dependencies it can use ahead of time). Source code is always downloaded from the publisher's website and rarely patched. SMGL also includes many advanced features such as self-healing and sub-dependencies.[88]


In 2001, Kyle Sallee released a Linux distribution named Sorcerer GNU/Linux. Due to several issues, in 2002, Chuck S. Mead forked Sorcerer into Lunar Linux. Soon afterwards, Kyle Sallee took Sorcerer GNU/Linux offline. The remaining Sorcerer GNU/Linux development team brought it back online and continued development. A month later, Kyle Sallee brought his version of Sorcerer back online with a new license that prevented forking, dropping GNU/Linux from the name. Consequently, at the request of Sallee, the Sorcerer GNU/Linux team renamed their project Source Mage.[89]

Talos Linux​

Talos Linux is a container optimized GNU/Linux distro; a reimagining of Linux for distributed systems such as Kubernetes. Designed to be as minimal as possible while still maintaining practicality.

  • It is immutable
  • It is ephemeral
  • It is minimal
  • It is secure by default
  • It is managed via a single declarative configuration file and gRPC API

Talos can be deployed on container, cloud, virtualized, and bare metal platforms.

Talos is fully open source, production-ready, and supported by the people at Sidero Labs All system management is done via an API - there is no shell or interactive console.[91]

TAMU Linux

TAMU Linux is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribución from USA, recognized as first Linux distribution to be distributed with an X Window System (GUI), rather than a purely text-based operating system. TAMU Linux was developed primarily by Aggies (Dave Safford) of Texas A&M University, hence the name TAMU, in conjunction with the Texas A&M Unix & Linux Users Group, and was distributed via floppy diskettes.

  • The first such thing was from the Manchester Computing Centre. Known as MCC Interim Linux, it was a collection of diskettes that, once installed on your system, let you have a basic UNIX environment. It was console only, no X. Shortly after that there was a release out of Texas A&M University called TAMU 1.0A.[92]

Version list
  • Beta testing builds
  • 99p12+: Unlike previous versions, this one includes integrated source code and binary sets, with the entire binary set created from a single top-level source code: The release is a complete package, including XFree86-1.3, emacs-19.18, net-2, bootutils, and the sources for all installation programs (with no usage restrictions).[93]
  • 99p15
  • Beta 1.0
  • Beta 1.0A: Includes both *integrated sources* and binary sets.[94].
  • 1.x
  • 1.0B
  • 1.0C
  • 1.0D[95]: Includes both the *complete* source code and the binary.[96]).

TAMU.99p12+ is the latest release in the TAMU linux series. Unlike previous releases, this one includes both integrated source and binary sets, with the entire binary set created from a single top level source make. This ensures that all programs are compiled and linked with the same current tools and libraries, and guarantees availability of working source for every program in the binary set. In addition, the new boot diskette fully automates the installation process, including partitioning, lilo bootstrapping, and network configuration. Installation requires no rebooting, and requires the user to know only the host’s name and IP address. At every step of installation, the program provides intelligent defaults, making it a snap for novices, while allowing experts full flexibility in setting installation parameters. Reliability has been improved over past TAMU installation by the use of labels on all disk images, so that the program can detect and recover from bad or misordered diskettes.

Venom Linux

Venom Linux is a malaysian source based GNU/Linux distribution built from scratch make for daily use targetting experienced users, and a rolling-release distribution inspired by CRUX. Venom uses SysV init as the main init system and BSD-like ports as software packages which are managed by a custom package management tool called scratchpkg (written in compliance with POSIX standards).

The distribution offers a simple graphical desktop built around the Openbox window manager and a text-mode system installer.

  • Highly customizable
  • Multilib (yes, steam and wine is in the repo, just run the magic word to install it)
  • You can create your own repos and ports on top of existing one
  • Writing package's port is dead simple
  • Packages is latest stable/development
  • Rolling release
  • Man pages is compressed
  • libtool (*.la) files is removed
  • Binaries and libraries is stripped
  • Precompiled packages can be installed to other machines (used with scratchpkg)
  • Get rid of junks (info pages, locales, and etc)

Vine Linux

Vine Linux is a japanese GNU/Linux distribution, with integrated japanese environment for desktop PCs and notebooks.

Project Vine was founded by six members of the Project Japanese Extension (JPE) in 1998 and has been developing Vine Linux with help of many members and volunteers.

Vine Seed, the development version of Vine Linux, is a public software repository, which all developers are welcome to join and contribute to.

Out-of-the-box Kanji support is available throughout most applications and Japanese input support is provided by either the FreeWnn (or Wnn6 in the commercial "CR" edition) or the Canna input server.

Tiny Core Linux

Tiny Core Linux is an independent distribution, forked from Damn Small Linux. and an highly modular based system

Tiny Core Linux is a minimal Linux kernel based operating system focusing on providing a base system using BusyBox and FLTK.

It was developed by Robert Shingledecker, who was previously the lead developer of Damn Small Linux.

The distribution is notable for its small size (11 to ~16-17 MB) and minimalism; additional functions are provided by extensions.

The core runs entirely in memory and boots very quickly. The user has complete control over which applications and/or additional hardware to have supported, be it for a desktop, a nettop, an appliance or server; selectable from the project's online repository.


Tiny Core Linux offer 3 different x86 "cores" to start: Core, TinyCore, and our installation image, CorePlus.

  • Core: (17 MB) Core is the base system which provides only a command line interface and is therefore recommended for experienced users only. Command line tools are provided so that extensions can be added to create a system with a graphical desktop environment. Ideal for servers, appliances, and custom desktops.
  • TinyCore: (23 MB) TinyCore is the recommended option for new users who have a wired network connection. It includes the base Core system plus X/GUI extensions for a dynamic FLTK/FLWM graphical desktop environment.
  • CorePlus: (248 MB) CorePlus is an installation image and not the distribution. It is recommended for new users who only have access to a wireless network or who use a non-US keyboard layout. It includes the base Core System and installation tools to provide for the setup with the following options: Choice of 7 Window Managers, Wireless support via many firmware files and ndiswrapper, non-US keyboard support, and a remastering tool.

Discontinued Tiny Core Linux-based distributions
  1. Nanolinux: It was a German open source, free and very lightweight GNU/Linux distribution that required only 14 MB of disk space and included tiny versions of the most common desktop applications and several games. It is based on the Core version (MicroCore edition) of the Tiny Core Linux distribution and uses Busybox, Nano-X instead of X.Org, FLTK 1.3.x as the default GUI toolkit, and SLWM (super-lightweight window manager). The included applications are mainly based on FLTK.
  2. TinyPaw-Linux: It was a GNU/Linux WiFi pentesting distribution built on Tiny Core Linux and inspired by the Xiaopan OS project. Lightweight with some new tools and updates to the tools that have stood the test of time. Tiny as in lightweight and built off Tiny Core Linux, Paw is for "Passive & Aggressive WiFi".[99]
  3. Xiaopan OS: Xiaopan OS was an easy to use software package for beginners and experts that includes a number of advanced hacking tools to penetrate WPA / WPA2 / WPS / WEP wireless networks. Based on the Tiny Core Linux (TCL) operating system (OS), it has a slick graphical user interface (GUI) requiring no need for typing Linux commands.

Void Linux

Void Linux is an independent spanish rolling release GNU/Linux distribution, eveloped from scratch rather than as a fork, with a focus on stability over bleeding-edge.

Uses the X Binary Package System (XBPS) package manager, which was designed and implemented from scratch, and the runit init system.

Its package system allow a quickly install, update and remove software, performs checks when installing updates to ensure that libraries are not changed to incompatible versions which can break dependencies.

Software is provided in binary packages or can be built directly from sources with the help of the XBPS source packages collection. It is available for a variety of platforms.

Software packages can be built natively or cross compiled through the XBPS source packages collection.

Void has musl libc, which focuses on standards compliance and correctness, has first class support.

This allows us to build certain components for musl systems statically, which would not be practical on glibc systems.


The name "Void" comes from the C literal void. It was chosen rather randomly, and is void of any meaning.[100]


Void Linux was created in 2008 by Juan Romero Pardines, a former developer of NetBSD, to have a test-bed for the XBPS package manager. The ability to natively build packages from source using xbps-src is likely inspired by pkgsrc and other BSD ports collections.

In May 2018, the project was moved to a new website and code repository by the core team after the project leader had not been heard from for several months.

  • Uses runit as its init system instead of the more common systemd used by other distributions.
  • It has software repositories and installation media using either glibc or musl are available.
  • Was the first distribution to have incorporated LibreSSL as the system cryptography library by default.
  • In February 2021, the Void Linux team announced Void Linux would be switching back to OpenSSL on March 5, 2021.
  • A switch to OpenSSL began in April 2020 in the GitHub issue of the void-packages repository where most of the discussion has taken place.
  • Due to its rolling release nature, a system running Void is kept up-to-date with binary updates from the repositories in contrast with a point release.
  • Source packages are maintained on GitHub and can be compiled using the xbps-src build system.
  • The package build process is performed in a clean environment, not tied to the current system, and most packages can be cross-compiled for foreign architectures.
  • As of April 2017, Void Linux supports Flatpak, which allows the installation of the latest packages from upstream repositories.
  • It features a hybrid binary/source package management system which allows users to quickly install, update and remove software, or to build software directly from sources with the help of the XBPS source packages collection.

Active Void Linux-based distributions
  1. gabeeOS Linux & gabeeOS Linux ( (respin)
  2. Cereus Linux (respin)
  3. VX Linux
  4. Project_Vole: Is a minimal Void Linux based GNU/Linux distribution, featuring i3 window manager. Project_Vole is in an alpha stage of development.
Discontinued Void Linux-based distributions
  1. Project Trident: It was a desktop-focused operating system based on Void (previously Trident was based on TrueOS). Project Trident uses the Lumina desktop as well as a number of self-developed system administration utilities. The Void-based distribution is installed on the ZFS filesystem to provide snapshots and rollback features.

Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X

Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X, or LGX (pronounced igg-drah-sill), is an early discontinued GNU/Linux distribution developed by Yggdrasil Computing, Incorporated, a company founded by Adam J. Richter in Berkeley, California.

Yggdrasil Linux described itself as a "Plug-and-Play" Linux distribution, automatically configuring itself for the hardware.


Yggdrasil is the World Tree of Norse mythology. The name was chosen because Yggdrasil took disparate pieces of software and assembled them into a complete product. Yggdrasil's company motto was "Free Software For The Rest of Us".

Yggdrasil was compliant with the Unix Filesystem Hierarchy Standard.

History and releases
Yggdrasil announced their ‘bootable Linux/GNU/X-based UNIX(R) clone for PC compatibles’ on 25 November 1992 and made the first release on 8 December 1992. This alpha release contained the 0.98.1 version of the Linux kernel, the v11r5 version of the X Window System supporting up to 1024x768 with 256 colours, various GNU utilities such as their C/C++ compiler, the GNU Debugger, bison, flex, and make, TeX, groff, Ghostscript, the elvis and Emacs editors, and various other software.
Yggdrasil's alpha release required a 386 computer with 8 MB RAM and 100 MB hard disk. The alpha release was missing some of the source code of some of the packages, such as elvis.
A beta release was made on 18 February 1993. The beta's cost was US$60. LGX's beta release in 1993 contained the 0.99.5 version of the Linux kernel, along with other software from GNU and X. By 22 August 1993, the Yggdrasil company had sold over 3100 copies of the LGX beta distribution.
The production release version carried a pricetag of US$99. However, Yggdrasil was offered for free to any developer whose software was included with the CD distribution. According to an email from the company's founder the marginal cost of each subscription was $35.70.
Early Yggdrasil releases were also available from stores selling CD-ROM software.
The first release was published in 1994 (an alpha in 1992) as a single CD.
The second (and the last) release of Yggdrasil was in 1995 as 4 CD.


  1. /4MLinux/ : About -
  2. /4MLinux/ - 4MLinux Is So Lightweight It's Anemic | Reviews | LinuxInsider -
  3. /Antivirus Live CD/ : Website
  4. /BakAndImgCD/ : Website
  5. /TheSSS/ : Website
  6. / Alpine Linux / - Older Releases
  7. / Alpine Linux / - Release Branches
  8. /postmarketOS/ - Wiki
  9. /Bedrock Linux/ - Introduction to Bedrock Linux
  10. /BOGUS Linux/ - The BOGUS Linux Release
  11. /Chakra GNU/Linux/ - Welcome -
  12. /Chakra GNU/Linux/ - Distribution Release: Chakra GNU/Linux 0.2.0
  13. /Chakra GNU/Linux/ - Goodbye KDEmod !
  14. /Chakra GNU/Linux/ -Chakra project shutting down
  15. /Chakra GNU/Linux/ - Board meeting, April 11th, 2022 - Software in the Public Interest, Inc.
  16. /Chakra GNU/Linux/ Resolution 2022-04-11.hom.1: Removal of Chakra Linux as an associated project
  17. / Chimera Linux / - Documentation
  18. / Chimera Linux / - History
  19. / CRUX / - About
  20. Der Gründer über Gestern, Heute und Linux - In the section: "Nürnberger Kröte", 2nd paragraph -
  21. Linux in Deuschland (in german)
  22. / EasyOS / - How and why EasyOS is different
  23. / Fuduntu / - Fuduntu 14.12 Release – Happy Anniversary!
  24. Remix
  25. / Fuduntu / - Fuduntu Team meeting held on 14 April 2013]
  26. / Flatcar Container Linux / - Announcing the Flatcar Linux project
  27. / Flatcar Container Linux / - Release Channels
  28. /fli4l/ - What's that, fli4l?
  29. / GNU Guix System / - About — GNU Guix -
  30. / GNU Guix System / - Free GNU/Linux distributions
  31. / GoboLinux / - What is GoboLinux?
  32. / GoboLinux / - GoboLinux releases
  33. / IPFire / - What is IPFire?
  34. Jarro Negro – distribución Linux mexicana - 23/01/2008
  35. / JarroNegro / - Project (Proyecto)
  36. /Junos OS Evolved (/ - Top Differences Between Junos OS Evolved and Junos OS
  37. / Jurix / -History
  38. / Jurix / - Archive:S.u.S.E. Linux 4.2
  39. / Jurix / - La Roche, Florian (1999-02-26). "jurix Linux readme". Technische Universität Darmstadt.
  40. / KaOS / - KaOS 2013.9 ISO released with KDE 4.12.0
  41. / KaOS / - Review - KaOS
  42. / KaOS / - Early September Status -
  43. / LibreELEC / - - Forks
  44. / LibreELEC / - Releases
  45. / LibreELEC / - - Forks
  46. / Lakka / - Website Lakka
  47. / CoreELECT / - Website
  48. / CoreELECT / - Github
  49. / Jurix / - A Short History of Linux Distributions -
  50. / Linux From Scratch / - What is Linux From Scratch?
  51. / Linux From Scratch / - What is Linux From Scratch?, LFS Project Homepage
  52. / Linux From Scratch / - "Cross-Compiled Linux From Scratch - Embedded".
  53. / Lunar Linux / - Wiki: About Lunar Linux
  54. / Lunar Linux / - About Our Project
  55. / blackPanther OS / -
  56. /MCC Interim Linux/ - MCC Interm Linux 1.0+ - README file -
  57. /Mini Linux / -
  58. / MontaVista / - History
  59. / MontaVista / - MontaVista touts native hard real-time Linux
  60. / NixOS / - Overview of the NixOS Linux distribution - Wiki
  61. / NixOS / - Comparison with traditional Linux Distributions - Wiki
  62. [1]
  63. / OpeELEC / - Stable OpenELEC 8.0.4 released (
  64. /openmamba GNU/Linux / - About
  65. / OpenMandriva LX / - What is OpenMandriva Lx? - Wiki OpenMandriva LX
  66. / OpenMandriva LX / - OpenMandriva ROME - The rolling release
  67. / OpenWrt / - About
  68. / OpenWrt / - OpenWrt version history
  69. / paldo GNU/Linux / - What is paldo?
  70. / Peropesis / - About
  71. / Pisi Linux / - About) (Hakkımızda) (in Turkish)
  72. / PLD Linux Distribution / - PLD Linux Distribution
  73. /PLD Linux Distribution / - About PLD Linux
  74. /PLD Linux Distribution / - PLD Features
  75. / Plop Linux / - Plop Linux - Overview
  76. / Plop Linux / - Plop Linux History
  77. / Plop Linux / - Live > Introduction
  78. / Puppy Linux / - Puppy Linux History
  79. / Puppy Linux / - About
  80. / rlxos / - Github (Readme)
  81. / rlxos / - History
  82. / SliTaz GNU/Linux / - About SliTaz
  83. '/ SliTaz GNU/Linux / - About SliTaz / Overview
  84. / Softlanding Linux System / - 25 Years of Linux / Red Hat blog /
  85. /SLS/ - SLS: Free Linux Distribution - comp.os.linux
  86. / Softlanding Linux System / - 2ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT... The early history of Linux, Part 2, Re: distribution - LinuxUser
  87. /Debian/ - NNTP Subject: New release under development; suggestions requested
  88. / Source Mage GNU/Linux / - About
  89. / Source Mage GNU/Linux / - History
  90. / Talos / - What is talos
  91. / Talos / - Github - Readme
  92. /TAMU Linux/ - A Short History of Linux Distributions -
  93. / TAMU Linux / - Distribution-HOWTO at
  94. / TAMU Linux / - Beta TAMU 1.0A - Anuncio
  95. / TAMU Linux / - TAMU-1.0D
  96. / TAMU Linux / - TAMU-1.0 Announcement
  97. / Venom Linux / - Venom Linux Files -
  98. / Tiny Core Linux / - Cores
  99. / TinyPaw-Linux / - TinyPaw-Linux
  100. /Void Linux / - About