Ubuntu

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Ubuntu


  • Ubuntu is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Debian GNU/Linux (unstable branch), which are synchronised every six months. and composed mostly of free and open-source software (FOSS), developed by the British company Canonical, and a community of other developers.
  • Ubuntu is officially released in multiple editions: Desktop, Server, and Core for Internet of things devices and robots. It is also popular for cloud computing, with support for OpenStack.
  • An upgrade to Ubuntu is released every six months, with long-term support (LTS) releases every two years.
  • Since the release of the first version in 2004, Ubuntu has become one of the most popular Linux distributions for general purposes and is backed by large online communities like Ask Ubuntu.

Name

Ubuntu is named after the Nguni philosophy of ubuntu, "humanity to others" with a connotation of "I am what I am because of who we all are".


Logos
The first logo was released in 2004.
The second logo was released in 2010.
The current logo was released in 2022.

Ubuntu Overview

Items Information & References


Based on Debian GNU/Linux unstable.


Developer Canonical Ltd.


First release Ubuntu 4.10 (Warty Warthog), 20/10/2004.[1]


Origin International


Editions
  • Semi-annually in April and October, using the year and month of the release as a version number.
  • Canonical schedules Ubuntu releases to occur approximately one month after GNOME releases, resulting in each Ubuntu release including a newer version of GNOME.
  • Every fourth releases, occurring in the second quarter of even-numbered years, has been designated as a long-term support (LTS) release.


Architecture Ubuntu supports several processor architectures: x86-64, ARM64, RISC-V, ppc64le (POWER8 and later), s390x and ARMhf (ARMv7 + VFPv3-D16)


Package
format
Ubuntu and distributions based on it use the .deb package format, from Debian.


Package
manager

• GNOME Software
• dpkg (APT, Advanced Packing Tool)
• Snap – graphical front-end: Snap Store



License • Free software + some proprietary device drivers


Website www.ubuntu.com
Ubuntu Releases history
Ubuntu Releases history
Version
Code name
Release date Initial Linux kernel version
4.10
Warty Warthog
2004-10-20 2.6.8
5.04
Hoary Hedgehog
2005-04-08 2.6.10
5.10
Breezy Badger
2005-10-12 2.6.12
6.06 LTS
Dapper Drake
2006-06-01 2.6.15
6.10
Edgy Eft
2006-10-26 2.6.17
7.04
Feisty Fawn
2007-04-19 2.6.20
7.10
Gutsy Gibbon
2007-10-18 2.6.22
8.04 LTS
Hardy Heron
2008-04-24 2.6.24
8.10
Intrepid Ibex
2008-10-30 2.6.27
9.04
Jaunty Jackalope
2009-04-23 2.6.28
9.10
Karmic Koala
2009-10-29 2.6.31
10.04 LTS
Lucid Lynx
2010-04-29 2.6.32
10.10
Maverick Meerkat
2010-10-10 2.6.35
11.04
Natty Narwhal
2011-04-28 2.6.38
11.10
Oneiric Ocelot
2011-10-13 3.0
12.04 LTS
Precise Pangolin
2012-04-26 3.2
12.10
Quantal Quetzal
2012-10-18 3.5
13.04
Raring Ringtail
2013-04-25 3.8
13.10
Saucy Salamander
2013-10-17 3.11
14.04 LTS
Trusty Tahr
2014-04-17 3.13
14.10
Utopic Unicorn
2014-10-23 3.16
15.04
Vivid Vervet
2015-04-23 3.19
15.10
Wily Werewolf
2015-10-22 4.2
16.04 LTS
Xenial Xerus
2016-04-21 4.4
16.10
Yakkety Yak
2016-10-13 4.8
17.04
Zesty Zapus
2017-04-13 4.10
17.10
Artful Aardvark
2017-10-19 4.13
18.04 LTS
Bionic Beaver
2018-04-26 4.15
18.10
Cosmic Cuttlefish
2018-10-18 4.18
19.04
Disco Dingo
2019-04-18 5.0
19.10
Eoan Ermine
2019-10-17 5.3
20.04 LTS
Focal Fossa
2020-04-23 5.4
20.10
Groovy Gorilla
2020-10-22 5.8
21.04
Hirsute Hippo
2021-04-22 5.11
21.10
Impish Indri
2021-10-14 5.13
22.04 LTS
Jammy Jellyfish
2022-04-21 5.15 or 5.17
22.10
Kinetic Kudu
2022-10-20 5.19
23.04
Lunar Lobster
2023-04-20 6.2
23.10
Mantic Minotaur
2023-10-12 6.5
24.04 LTS
Noble Numbat
2024-04-25 6.8
24.10
Oracular Oriole
2024-10 To be announced

Active Ubuntu based distributions

  1. andLinux
  2. APODIO
  3. Armbian
  4. BackBox Linux
  5. Baltix
  6. BEE free
  7. BoliviaOS
  8. Bodhi Linux
  9. Br OS
  10. CAELinux
  11. CAINE Linux
  12. Chromium OS
  13. Ciberlinux
  14. Colebuntu, Home distribution for tabletspc and non-university education in Aragon - edulibre.info
  15. Cubuntu
  16. CutefishOS: CutefishOS is a GNU/Linux distribution which has been based on Debian 12 and also on Ubuntu (with Ubiquity and Calamares installers, version Cutefish 0.8 and CutefishOS-22.04.0-YoYo), and that focuses on simplicity, beauty and practicality. The goal is to provide users with a comfortable interface design, a better user experience, and meet the needs of various scenarios. It runs Cutefish Desktop Environment which has a modern style design.
  17. DAT Linux
  18. Drauger OS: Is a GNU/Linux desktop gaming distribution based on Ubuntu LTS, that ships with many modifications and optimizations over stock Ubuntu that are intended to improve gaming performance and the gaming experience. From simple changes such as swapping Gnome out for the light-weight Xfce Desktop Environment and using a dark GTK theme by default, to more complex changes such as using a kernel compiled in-house and replacing PulseAudio with Pipewire. Drauger OS is built from the ground up with our primary focus on performance. It aims to provide a platform for gamers to use where they can get great performance without sacrificing their security.
  19. elementary OS
  20. Edubuntu, educational version of Ubuntu.
  21. EdulibreOs
  22. EVuntu
  23. EHUX
  24. Emperor-OS
  25. Exton|OS
  26. FEINIX-Arq, custom distribution, School of Architecture, Universidad Veracruzana, Campus Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
  27. Feren OS: A british (UK) GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu featuring the KDE Plasma desktop. It ships with a tweaked Calamares system installer, a custom theme and fonts, the Vivaldi web browser, boot options for advanced users, and a Feren OS Tour application, among the many home-built features and improvements. Prior to November 2020, the distribution was based on Linux Mint and included an edition with the Cinnamon desktop.
  28. Freespire, from 2017 Freespire became a free operating system based on Ubuntu and run by PC/OpenSystems LLC. Freespire features the Xfce desktop environment. Formerly based on Linspire.
  29. Freezy Linux
  30. Galsoft Linux
  31. Gobuntu
  32. Goobuntu, developed by por Google.
  33. Greenie Linux
  34. iBuntu: Is an Ubuntu based GNU/Linux distribution which provides the desktop design as close as possible to MacOS desktop look.
  35. JingOS
  36. Joventux
  37. Karoshi
  38. Kalango
  39. KDE neon
  40. Kubuntu
  41. Linux Mint
  42. Lazarux
  43. Leeenux Linux
  44. Linkat (originally based on SUSE Linux).
  45. Linspire
  46. Linux Kodachi
  47. Linux Lite
  48. LiMux
  49. Linuxfx
  50. LXLE
  51. Lubuntu
  52. LUC3M
  53. LULA
  54. LuninuX OS
  55. Madrid_Linux
  56. Martine OS[2]
  57. Mcyber
  58. MakuluLinux
  59. mEDUXa
  60. Melinux
  61. Miniubuntu
  62. MODICIA O.S.
  63. Moobuntu
  64. Nova
  65. Olá! Dom
  66. Pearl Linux OS
  67. PingüinOS
  68. Pop!_OS
  69. Predator-OS
  70. Proyecto LULA|LULA
  71. Q4OS
  72. Quelitu OS
  73. Qimo
  74. Redo Rescue (formerly Redo Backup & Recovery), is a LiveCD GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu featuring backup, restore and disaster recovery software. It centres around an easy-to-use graphical program for running bare-metal backup and recovery on hard disk partitions, as well as on external hard drives and network shares. The CD also includes several popular data recovery programs and a web browser. The distribution, originally called Redo Backup & Recovery, went on hiatus after a release in late 2012, but was eventually resurrected in 2020 by the Redo Rescue project.
  75. Regolith Linux
  76. REMnux
  77. Rescuezilla: Is an australian specialist GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu, designed for system rescue tasks, including backups and system restoration. It was forked from the "Redo Backup & Rescue" project which was abandoned in 2012. Like its predecessor, it allows a "bare-metal restore" after any hardware failure directly from the live image. Some of the features include: works directly from the live CD/USB image; works with Linux, macOS and Windows; automatically searches a local area network for drives to backup to or restore from; recovers lost or deleted data files; includes configuration tools for managing disk and drives. Rescuezilla uses a simplified LXDE user interface. Rescuezilla was forked from Redo Backup and Recovery (now called Redo Rescue) because it had been abandoned for 7 years. Rescuezilla is more than a trivial fork: it has been carefully rebuilt from the ground up to be fully compatible with the industry-standard Clonezilla.
  78. Rhino Linux, (successor of Rolling Rhino Remix)
  79. Robolinux
  80. Rolling Rhino Remix
  81. Runtu
  82. SharkLinux
  83. Shiny OS
  84. Sibu
  85. SLinux
  86. Spri
  87. Starbuntu
  88. SuperGamer, until version Supreme-2.5 (13-03-2011), based on VectorLinux, then based on Ubuntu.
  89. Tiflobuntu
  90. Trisquel GNU/Linux, (before version 2.0, based on Debian GNU/Linux, then based on Ubuntu)
  91. TurpialMaracaibo
  92. TUXEDO OS: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu, developed in Germany by TUXEDO Computers GmbH, designed and optimised for the company's own range of Linux-friendly personal computers and notebooks. The distribution uses KDE Plasma as ]]desktop environment]] by default. TUXEDO OS include custom boot menu, the TUXEDO Control Centre, Calamares installer, availability of the Lutris open gaming platform, preference for the PipeWire audio daemon, and various other tweaks and enhancements. TUXEDO OS use a modified Linux kernel opptimized for TUXEDO-Hardware.
  93. UBports
  94. Ubuntu Budgie: Is an official community flavor of Ubuntu. It combines the Ubuntu-based system with the independently developed Budgie desktop environment.
  95. Ubuntu Cinnamon:ISs a community-driven, free and open-source GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu, using the Cinnamon desktop environment in place of Ubuntu's GNOME Shell. The first release was 19.10 'Eoan Ermine' released on 04/12/2019, and is the first official distribution to use Ubuntu with the Cinnamon desktop. Ubuntu Cinnamon Remix is also used synonymously to reference the project.
  96. Ubuntu Christian Edition
  97. Ubuntu DesktopPack[3]
  98. Ubuntu Kylin
  99. Ubuntu MATE
  100. UbuntuiES
  101. Ubuntu JeOS
  102. Ubuntu Studio
  103. Ubuntu Touch
  104. Ubuntutrinux
  105. Ubuntu Unity
  106. UEx Linux
  107. Untangle Gateway
  108. Urli
  109. UserLinux
  110. Vacarm Linux
  111. Voyager Live
  112. Vitalinux
  113. Wubuntu
  114. Xandros
  115. Xubuntu
  116. Zentyal
  117. ZevenOS
  118. Zorin OS: Is a GNU/Linux distribution, from Ireland based on Ubuntu. The project was started in 2008 by co-founders Artyom and Kyrill Zorin. Zorin OS uses a GNOME 3 and XFCE 4 desktop environment by default, although the desktop is heavily customized in order to help users transition from Windows and macOS easily. Wine and PlayOnLinux are supported, allowing users to run compatible Windows software. Its creators maintain three free editions of the operating system, and sell a professional edition. The first version, Zorin OS 1.0, was released on 01/07/2009.


Kubuntu

Kubuntu is a GNU/Linux distribution, an official flavor of the Ubuntu, the is based on Ubuntu, that uses the KDE Plasma Desktop instead of the GNOME desktop environment.

  • As part of the Ubuntu project, Kubuntu uses the same underlying systems.
  • Kubuntu shares the same repositories as Ubuntu and is released regularly on the same schedule as Ubuntu.
  • Kubuntu was sponsored by Canonical Ltd. until 2012, and then directly by Blue Systems.

Name

"Kubuntu" is a registered trademark held by Canonical.

  • It is derived from the name Ubuntu, prefixing a K to represent the KDE platform that Kubuntu is built upon (following a widespread naming convention of prefixing K to the name of any software released for use on KDE platforms), as well as the KDE community.
  • Ubuntu is a Bantu term translating roughly to 'humanity'. Since Bantu grammar involves prefixes to form noun classes, and the prefix ku- has the meaning 'toward' in Bemba, kubuntu is therefore also a meaningful Bemba word or phrase translating to 'toward humanity'. Reportedly, the same word, by coincidence, also takes the meaning of 'free' (in the sense of 'without payment') in Kirundi.

Comparison with Ubuntu
Software Ubuntu Kubuntu
Kernel and core Linux kernel and Ubuntu core
Display server X.Org Server and Wayland
Sound PipeWire
Multimedia Totem and Rhythmbox VLC media player and Elisa
Window manager Mutter KWin
Desktop GNOME KDE Plasma 5
Primary toolkit GTK Qt
Browser Firefox
Office suite LibreOffice
Email and PIM Thunderbird Kontact

History
  • Development started back in December 2004 at the Ubuntu Mataró Conference in Mataró, Spain[9] when a Canonical employee Andreas Mueller, from Gnoppix, had the idea to make an Ubuntu KDE variant and got the approval from Mark Shuttleworth to start the first Ubuntu variant, called Kubuntu. On the same evening Chris Halls from the OpenOffice.org project and Jonathan Riddell from KDE started volunteering on the newborn project.
  • Shortly after Ubuntu was started, Mark Shuttleworth stated in an interview that he recognized the need for the KDE-based distribution in order to maintain diversity in Linux distributions, which in his belief aligns with Ubuntu project's overall purpose of increasing the adoption of free software.
  • K Desktop Environment 3 was used as default interface until Kubuntu 8.04. That version included KDE Plasma Desktop as unsupported option which became default in the subsequent release, 8.10.
  • On February 6, 2012, Canonical employee Jonathan Riddell announced the end of Canonical's Kubuntu sponsorship.
  • On April 10, 2012, Blue Systems was announced on the Kubuntu website as the new sponsor.
  • As a result, both developers employed by Canonical to work on Kubuntu–Jonathan Riddell and Aurélien Gâteau–transferred to Blue Systems.

Kubuntu Releases History
Version Release date Code name
5.04 2005-04-08 Hoary Hedgehog
5.10 2005-10-13 Breezy Badger
6.06.1 (6.06 LTS) 2006-06-01 Dapper Drake
6.10 2006-10-26 Edgy Eft
7.04 2007-04-19 Feisty Fawn
7.10 2007-10-18 Gutsy Gibbon
8.04 LTS 2008-04-24 Hardy Heron
8.10 2008-10-30 Intrepid Ibex
9.04 2009-04-23 Jaunty Jackalope
9.10 2009-10-30 Karmic Koala
10.04 LTS 2010-04-29 Lucid Lynx
10.10 2010-10-10 Maverick Meerkat
11.04 2011-04-28 Natty Narwhal
11.10 2011-10-12 Oneiric Ocelot
12.04 LTS 2012-04-25 Precise Pangolin
12.10 2012-10-18 Quantal Quetzal
13.04 2013-04-25 Raring Ringtail
13.10 2013-10-17 Saucy Salamander
14.04 LTS 2014-04-17 Trusty Tahr
14.10 2014-10-23 Utopic Unicorn
15.04 2015-04-23 Vivid Vervet
15.10 2015-10-22 Wily Werewolf
16.04 LTS 2016-04-21 Xenial Xerus
16.10 2016-10-13 Yakkety Yak
17.04 2017-04-13 Zesty Zapus
17.10 2017-10-19 Artful Aardvark
18.04 LTS 2018-04-26 Bionic Beaver
18.10 2018-10-18 Cosmic Cuttlefish
19.04 2019-04-18 Disco Dingo
19.10 2019-10-17 Eoan Ermine
20.04 LTS 2020-04-23 Focal Fossa
20.10 2020-10-22 Groovy Gorilla
21.04 2021-04-22 Hirsute Hippo
21.10 2021-10-14 Impish Indri
22.04 LTS 2022-04-21 Jammy Jellyfish
22.10 2022-10-21 Kinetic Kudu
23.04 2023-04-20 Lunar Lobster
23.10 2023-10-17 Mantic Minotaur
24.04 LTS 2024-04-25 Noble Numbat
Active Kubuntu-based distributions
  1. Linspire
Linspire

Linspire (formerly Lindows) is a 64 bits commercial GNU/Linux distribution originally based on Debian and Ubuntu, currently owned by PC/OpenSystems LLC.

It had been owned by Linspire. Inc. from 2001 to 2008, and then by Xandros from 2008 to 2017.

On July 1, 2008, Linspire stockholders elected to change the company's name to Digital Cornerstone, and all assets were acquired by Xandros.

On August 8, 2008, Andreas Typaldos, CEO of Xandros, announced that Linspire would be discontinued in favor of Xandros.

  • Freespire would change its base code from Ubuntu to Debian; and the Linspire brand would cease to exist.

On January 1, 2018, it was announced that PC/OpenSystems LLC had purchased Linspire and Freespire from Xandros, and that Linspire 7 was available for $79.99, while Freespire 3 was available for free.


History

Based in San Diego, California, Lindows, Inc. was incorporated in July 2001 by Michael Robertson and began selling products in January 2002. Robertson's goal was to develop a GNU/Linux-based operating system capable of running major Microsoft Windows applications. It based its Windows compatibility on the Wine API.

The company later abandoned this approach in favor of attempting to make GNU/Linux applications easy to download, install and use. To this end a program named "CNR" was developed: based on Debian's Advanced Packaging Tool (APT), it provides an easy-to-use [{GUI|graphical user interface]] and a slightly modified package system for an annual fee.

The first public release of Lindows was version 1.0, released in late 2001.

In 2002, Microsoft sued Lindows, Inc. claiming the name Lindows constituted an infringement of their Windows trademark. Microsoft's claims were rejected by the court, which asserted that Microsoft had used the term windows to describe graphical user interfaces before the Windows product was ever released, and that the windowing technique had already been implemented by Xerox and Apple Computer many years before. Microsoft sought a retrial and after this was postponed in February 2004, offered to settle the case. As part of the licensing settlement, Microsoft paid an estimated $20 million, and Lindows, Inc. transferred the Lindows trademark to Microsoft and changed its name to Linspire, Inc.

In 2003, Lindows Mobile PC, which starts at $799, was launched. Lindows said that about Excel about 95%, Word about 90% and PowerPoint about 80% functional. The notebook computer was low cost. Its processor, 933-megahertz C3, was made by VIA Technologies. The laptop weighed 2.9 pounds, had a 12.1-inch screen, 256 megabytes of RAM and a 20-gigabyte hard drive.

On June 15, 2005, Michael Robertson stepped down as CEO of Linspire, Inc. He continues as chairman[citation needed] and was replaced as CEO by Kevin Carmony.

Linspire became a member of the Interop Vendor Alliance which was founded in 2006.

On February 8, 2007, Linspire, Inc. and Canonical Ltd, the lead sponsor and developer of the Ubuntu operating system, announced plans for a new technology partnership, with Linspire aiming to "begin basing ... [their] desktop Linux offerings on Ubuntu."

On June 13, 2007, Linspire and Microsoft announced an interoperability collaboration agreement with a focus on document format compatibility, instant messaging, digital media, web search, and patent covenants for Linspire customers. This agreement was criticised, most notably by the Groklaw website for being disingenuously short-lived and limited, and against the spirit of the GNU General Public License. Kevin Carmony, in one of the regular "Linspire Letters," asserted that the agreement would "bring even more choices to desktop Linux users [and] ... offer a "better" Linux experience."


Linspire History Releases
Version /
Codename
Release Date
LindowsOS 0.91
Sneak Preview
05/04/2002
LindowsOS 1.0 08/2001
LindowsOS 1.1.1 21/06/2002
LindowsOS 2.0 18-19/09/2002
Lindows 2.1.40 24/10/2022
LindowsOS 3.0 15/11/2002
LindowsOS 4.0.302 22/06/2003
Linspire/LindowsOS 4.5
Coho
Linspire 5.0
Five-0
Linspire 5.1
Five-0
Linspire 6.0
Skipjack.


Active Linspire-based distributions
  1. Freespire
Freespire

Freespire is a community-driven GNU/Linux distribution currently owned by PC/Open Systems LLC. It is derived from Linspire and is composed mostly of free, open source software, while providing users the choice of including proprietary software including multimedia codecs, device drivers and application software.

  • Freespire 1.0 was based on Debian, while Freespire 2.0 was based on Ubuntu.

Linspire was bought by Xandros, who originally planned to switch back to Debian for future Freespire releases. On January 1, 2018, PC/Open Systems announced it had purchased Linspire from Xandros and released Freespire 3.0. While Linspire is available for $29.99, Freespire 3.0 is free.


Freespire Releases History
Version Release date Notes
1.0 Release Candidate (1.0.2) 2006-07-28 Release candidate
1.0 (1.0.13) 2006-08-04 Public release based on Debian, Linux kernel 2.6.14, and KDE 3.3.2
2.0 RC (1.9.0) 2007-07-10 Release candidate
2.0 2007-08-07 Public release based on Ubuntu 7.04, Linux 2.6.20, and KDE 3.5.6, with the built-in Click'N'Run 7 plug-in
2.0.8 2007-11-30 Fixes and Beta Click'N'Run plug-in
3.0 2018-01-01 Have Linux kernel 4.10.0-42, Mozilla Firefox Quantum web-browser, and other software updates.
3.0.1 2018-01-14 Meltdown and Spectre fix.
3.0.6.5 2018-02-08 Linux kernel updated to 4.13.0-32, added new UI tweaks for feedback about distro, removed GParted, updates until February 7, 2018 are applied and more.
3.0.8 2018-03-19
4.0 2018-08-20 Migration from Ubuntu 16.4 LTS to 18.04 LTS base
4.5 2018-12-20 Security updates
4.8 2019-05-03 Various Updates
5.0 2019-10-15 Various Updates
6.0 2020-02-10 Various Updates
6.0.3 2020-06-22
7.0 2020-10-30
7.1 2020-12-28
7.5 2021-05-09
7.7 2021-07-30
8.0 2021-12-05
8.2 2022-03-02 Swap desktop from MATE to KDE Plasma 5.
9.0 2023-01-23 Swap desktop from KDE Plasma 5 to Xfce


Discontinued Linspire-based distributions
  1. SquiggleOS
SquiggleOS

SquiggleOS (previously: Freespire) was a GNU/Linux distribution built from publicly available open source packages provided by Linspire, a prominent North American Linux vendor.

SquiggleOS conforms fully with the upstream vendor’s redistribution policies and aims to be 100% binary compatible.

SquiggleOS mainly changes packages to remove upstream vendor branding and artwork. The Freespire was a name of a separate, free version of Linspire distribution.

Andrew Betts having released a distribution by the same name late 2005.

Linspire asked Betts to change the name, and SquiggleOS was born (and has died too, no one is currently developing SquiggleOS).

Betts was asked to contribute to the official Freespire project, serving on Linspire’s Freespire Leadership Board.


Discontinued Kubuntu-based distributions
  1. BigLinux, was based on Kubuntu until 2017. Finally is based on Manjaro.
  2. Bardinux
  3. Ichthux
  4. iMagic OS
  5. Hannah Montana Linux
  6. KadedeOS


KadedeOS

KadedeOS is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribution based on Kubuntu and specialized in the management, visualization and production of multimedia content, as well as in the programming and development of applications and websites.


Origin

The origin of KadedeOS is in the specific distribution that the Kadede programming team created including all the applications they needed to develop the various projects they were working on, so that they did not have to install them separately on each PC they used. So they created a Live CD that they simply had to boot on any computer they used and they would have all this software available. Later they included a whole series of programs and codecs to add audiovisual production features to the system, which created a sufficiently concrete software picture to release this distribution to the public.


Features

Being based on Kubuntu, KadedeOS makes use of the KDE graphical interface, specifically in its version 4. It includes a multitude of pre-installed packages such as Gimp, Inkscape, Kino, Audacity, Rosegarden, Amarok, KDevelop, Gambas, Editra, etc. In addition to the Canonical repositories, KadedeOS has its own repository called Tutambien in which we can find a large number of exclusive packages that the Kadede team builds from source code, in addition to applications created by the same team.


Releases
  • The v0.1 NATIVE SON, was released on 30/10/2008.
  • The first release v.1.0 (codename VERTIGO) was scheduled for 01/01/2009, but this date was postponed indefinitely until the team confirms whether it will continue with the development of the distribution or stop it.
    • The codenames of the different versions correspond to songs by the Irish band U2.


Linux Mint

Linux Mint is a GNU(Linux distribution based mainly on Ubuntu, and Debian GNU/Linux also, (Linux Mint Debian Edition, LMDE).

  • The first release of Linux Mint was version 1.0 beta, 27/08/2006, code-named 'Ada'[4] based on Kubuntu and KDE interface.
  • Linux Mint 2.0 'Barbara' was the first version to use Ubuntu as its codebase and its GNOME interface.[5]

Logo history

Purpose

The purpose of Linux Mint is to produce a modern, elegant and comfortable operating system which is both powerful and easy to use.

Some of the reasons for the success of Linux Mint are:

  • It works out of the box, with full multimedia support and is extremely easy to use.
  • It's both free of cost and open source.
  • It's community-driven. Users are encouraged to send feedback to the project so that their ideas can be used to improve Linux Mint.
  • Based on Debian and Ubuntu, it provides about 30,000 packages and one of the best software managers.
  • It's safe and reliable—thanks to conservative software updates, a unique Update Manager, and its robust Linux architecture.
  • Linux Mint requires very little maintenance (no regressions, no antivirus, no anti-spyware...etc).

History
  • Linux Mint began in 27/08/2006 with a beta release, 1.0, code-named 'Ada', based on Kubuntu and using its KDE interface.
  • Linux Mint 2.0 'Barbara' was the first version to use Ubuntu as its codebase and its GNOME interface. It had few users until the release of Linux Mint 3.0, 'Cassandra'. Linux Mint 2.0 was based on Ubuntu 6.10, using Ubuntu's package repositories and using it as a codebase. It then followed its own codebase, building each release from the previous one, but continuing to use the package repositories of the latest Ubuntu release. This made the two systems bases almost identical, guaranteeing full compatibility between them, rather than requiring Mint to be a fork.
  • In 2008, Linux Mint adopted the same release cycle as Ubuntu and dropped its minor version number before releasing version 5 'Elyssa'. The same year, in an effort to increase compatibility between the two systems, Linux Mint decided to abandon its codebase and changed the way it built its releases. Starting with Linux Mint 6 'Felicia', each release was based completely on the latest Ubuntu release, built directly from it, and made available approximately one month after the corresponding Ubuntu release (usually in May or November).
Linux Mint Releases History
Version /
Codename
Edition /

Desktop environment

Codebase Release date
1.0
Ada
Main

KDE

Kubuntu 6.06 2006-08-27
2.0
Barbara
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 6.10 2006-11-13
2.1
Bea
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 6.10 2006-12-20
2.2
Bianca
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 6.10 2007-02-20
Light

GNOME

Ubuntu 6.10 2007-03-29
KDE CE

KDE

Kubuntu 6.10 2007-04-20
3.0
Cassandra
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 7.04 2007-05-30
Light

GNOME

Ubuntu 7.04 2007-06-15
KDE CE

KDE

Kubuntu 7.04 2007-08-14
MiniKDE CE

KDE

Kubuntu 7.04
Xfce CE

Xfce

Xubuntu 7.04 2007-08-07
3.1
Celena
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 7.04 2007-09-24
Light

GNOME

Ubuntu 7.04 2007-10-01
4.0
Daryna
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 7.10 2007-10-15
Light

GNOME

Ubuntu 7.10
KDE CE

KDE

Kubuntu 7.10 2008-03-03
5
Elyssa
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 8.04 2008-06-08
Light

GNOME

Ubuntu 8.04
x64

GNOME

Ubuntu 8.04 2008-10-18
KDE CE

KDE

Kubuntu 8.04 2008-09-15
Xfce CE

Xfce

Xubuntu 8.04 2008-09-08
Fluxbox CE

Fluxbox

Ubuntu 8.04 2008-10-21
6
Felicia
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 8.10 2008-12-15
Universal (Light)

GNOME

Ubuntu 8.10 2008-12-15
x64

GNOME

Ubuntu 8.10 2009-02-06
KDE CE

KDE

Kubuntu 8.10 2009-04-08
Xfce CE

Xfce

Xubuntu 8.10 2009-02-24
Fluxbox CE

Fluxbox

Ubuntu 8.10 2009-04-07
7
Gloria
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 9.04 2009-05-26
Universal (Light)

GNOME

Ubuntu 9.04 2009-05-26
x64

GNOME

Ubuntu 9.04 2009-06-24
KDE CE

KDE

Kubuntu 9.04 2009-08-03
Xfce CE

Xfce

Xubuntu 9.04 2009-09-13
8
Helena
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 9.10 2009-11-28
Universal (Light)

GNOME

Ubuntu 9.10 2009-11-28
Gnome x64

GNOME

Ubuntu 9.10 2009-12-14
KDE Kubuntu 9.10 2010-02-06
KDE x64 2010-02-12
Fluxbox Ubuntu 9.10 2010-02-12
Xfce Xubuntu 9.10 2010-03-31
LXDE Ubuntu 9.10 2010-03-31
9
Isadora
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 10.04 2010-05-18
Gnome x64

GNOME

Ubuntu 10.04 2010-05-18
LXDE Lubuntu 10.04 2010-07-18
KDE Kubuntu 10.04 2010-07-27
KDE x64

KDE

Kubuntu 10.04 2010-07-27
Xfce Xubuntu 10.04 2010-08-24
Fluxbox Lubuntu 10.04 2010-09-06
10
Julia
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 10.10 2010-11-12
Gnome x64

GNOME

Ubuntu 10.10 2010-11-12
KDE Kubuntu 10.10 2011-02-23
KDE x64

KDE

Kubuntu 10.10 2011-02-23
LXDE Lubuntu 10.10 2011-03-16
11
Katya
Main

GNOME

Ubuntu 11.04 2011-05-26
Gnome x64

GNOME

Ubuntu 11.04 2011-05-26
LXDE Lubuntu 11.04 2011-08-16
12
Lisa
Main

GNOME 3
with MGSE[6]

Ubuntu 11.10 2011-11-26
KDE Kubuntu 11.10 2012-02-02
LXDE Lubuntu 11.10 2012-03-09
13
Maya
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 12.04 2012-05-23
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Xubuntu 12.04 2012-07-21
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Kubuntu 12.04 2012-07-23
14
Nadia
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 12.10 2012-11-20
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Xubuntu 12.10 2012-12-21
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Kubuntu 12.10 2012-12-23
15
Olivia
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 13.04 2013-05-29
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 13.04 2013-07-12
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 13.04 2013-07-21
16
Petra
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 13.10 2013-11-30
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 13.10 2013-12-22
17
Qiana
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2014-05-31
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2014-06-23
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2014-06-26
17.1
Rebecca
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2014-11-29
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2015-01-08
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2015-01-11
17.2
Rafaela
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2015-06-30
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2015-08-07
17.3
Rosa
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2015/12/04
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 14.04 2016/01/09
18
Sarah
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 16.04 2016/06/30
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 16.04 2016/09/09
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 16.04 2016/08/02
18.1
Serena
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 16.04 2016/12/16
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 16.04 2017/01/27
18.2
Sonya
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 16.04 2017/07/02
18.3
Sylvia
Cinnamon
MATE

Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 16.04 2017/10/27
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
KDE
Ubuntu 16.04 2017/12/15
19
Tara
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
(amd64 and i386)
2018/06/29
19.1
Tessa
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
(amd64 and i386)
2018/12/19
19.2
Tina
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
(amd64 and i386)
2019/08/02
19.3
Tricia
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
(amd64 and i386)
2019/12/18
20
Ulyana
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
amd64 (64-bit)
2020/06/27
20.1
Ulyssa
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
amd64 (64-bit)
2021/01/08
20.2
Uma
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
amd64 (64-bit)
2021/07/08
20.3
Una
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
amd64 (64-bit)
2022/01/07
21
Vanessa
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 22.04 LTS
amd64 (64-bit)
2022/07/31
21.1
Vera
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 22.04 LTS
amd64 (64-bit)
2022/12/20
21.2
Victoria
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 22.04 LTS
amd64 (64-bit)
2023/07/16
21.3
Virginia
Cinnamon
MATE
Xfce
Ubuntu 22.04 LTS
amd64 (64-bit)
2024/01/12
Active Linux Mint-based distributions
  1. HamoniKR: A korean GNU/Linux distribution. It features the Cinnamon desktop environment. The distribution includes Korean localization and educational software to be used in schools.
  2. eLearnix (ex Freeleader Linux). Formerly (2004) based on Slackware.
  3. PrimTux: It's a french GNU/Linux distribution based on Linux Mint 21.3, originally only based on Debian until version 4, then based on Debian 9 and Ubuntu 20.04 (version 5 to 7). It's developed by a small team of school teachers and computer enthusiasts in educational environments. It is not intended to replace or become the main operating system of a modern computer, but an upgrade for obsolete equipment and benefiting the school or educational environment in the spirit of education. Its aims to dedicated to learning and designed by educationalists, for school and home.
Discontinued Linux Mint-based distributions
  1. Commodore OS Vision
  2. Phoenix Linux
  3. VIPER VAST, (VIPER Assessment Security Tools)
Linux Mint Debian Edition

Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE) is Linux Mint version, is based on Debian, from 02/03/2014, version 1[7]

In 2010, Linux Mint released Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE). Unlike the other Ubuntu-based editions (Ubuntu Mint), LMDE was originally a rolling release based directly on Debian and not tied to Ubuntu packages or its release schedule.

It was announced on May 27, 2015, that the Linux Mint team would no longer support the original rolling release version of LMDE after January 1, 2016. LMDE 2 'Betsy' was a long-term support release based on Debian Jessie.

When LMDE 2 was released, it was announced that all LMDE users would be automatically upgraded to new versions of MintTools software and new desktop environments before they were released into the main edition of Linux Mint.


LMDE Releases History
Version Codename ISO edition Debian base Desktop environment Release date
1 201403 Debian 8.0 (Jessie) Cinnamon
MATE
Supports amd64 and i386
03/03/2014
2 Betsy 201503 10/04/2015
201701 13/03/2017
3 Cindy 201808 Debian 9.0 (Stretch) Cinnamon
Supports both amd64 and i386
31/08/2018
4 Debbie Debian 10.0 (Buster) 20/03/2020
5 Elsie Debian 11.0 (Bullseye) 20/03/2022
6 Faye Debian 12.0 (Bookworm) 27/09/2023

Xubuntu

Xubuntu is a GNU/Linux distribution community-maintained based on Ubuntu. The X in Xubuntu stands for the desktop environment Xfce.

Xubuntu seeks to provide "a light, stable and configurable desktop environment with conservative workflows" using Xfce components. Rather than explicitly targeting low-powered machines, it attempts to provide "extra responsiveness and speed" on existing hardware.

In addition to using the Ubuntu core, Xubuntu also uses the infrastructure kindly provided and sponsored by Canonical Ltd., a company founded by Mark Shuttleworth.


History
  • Xubuntu was originally intended to be released at the same time as Ubuntu 5.10 Breezy Badger, 13/10/2005, but the work was not complete by that date. Instead the Xubuntu name was used for the xubuntu-desktop metapackage available through the Synaptic Package Manager which installed the Xfce desktop.
  • The first Xubuntu release, led by Jani Monoses, appeared on 01/06/2006, as part of the Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake line, which also included Kubuntu and Edubuntu.
  • Cody A.W. Somerville developed a comprehensive strategy for the Xubuntu project named the Xubuntu Strategy Document.
  • In February 2009 Mark Shuttleworth agreed that an official LXDE version of Ubuntu, Lubuntu, would be developed. The LXDE desktop uses the Openbox window manager and, like Xubuntu, is intended to be a low-system-requirement, low-RAM environment for netbooks, mobile devices and older PCs and will compete with Xubuntu in that niche.
  • In November 2009, Cody A.W. Somerville stepped down as the project leader and made a call for nominations to help find a successor. Lionel Le Folgoc was confirmed by the Xubuntu community as the new project leader on 10 January 2010 and requested the formation of an official Xubuntu council. As of late March 2010, discussions regarding the future of Xubuntu's governance and the role a council might play in it were still ongoing.
  • In March 2012 Charlie Kravetz, a former Xubuntu project leader, formally resigned from the project. Despite this, the project members indicated that Xubuntu 12.04 would go ahead as scheduled.
  • In the beginning of 2016, the Xubuntu team began the process to transition the project to become council run rather than having a single project leader. On 1 January 2017, an official post on the Xubuntu site's blog announced the official formation of the Xubuntu Council. The purpose of the council is not just to make decisions about the future of the project, but to make sure the direction of the project adheres to guidelines established in the Strategy Document.

Xubuntu Releases History
Version Release date Code name
5.10 2005-10-13 Breezy Badger
6.06 LTS 2006-06-01 Dapper Drake
6.10 2006-10-26 Edgy Eft
7.04 2007-04-19 Feisty Fawn
7.10 2007-10-18 Gutsy Gibbon
8.04 LTS 2008-04-24 Hardy Heron
8.10 2008-10-30 Intrepid Ibex
9.04 2009-04-23 Jaunty Jackalope
9.10 2009-10-30 Karmic Koala
10.04 LTS 2010-04-29 Lucid Lynx
10.10 2010-10-10 Maverick Meerkat
11.04 2011-04-28 Natty Narwhal
11.10 2011-10-12 Oneiric Ocelot
12.04 LTS 2012-04-25 Precise Pangolin
12.10 2012-10-18 Quantal Quetzal
13.04 2013-04-25 Raring Ringtail
13.10 2013-10-17 Saucy Salamander
14.04 LTS 2014-04-17 Trusty Tahr
14.10 2014-10-23 Utopic Unicorn
15.04 2015-04-23 Vivid Vervet
15.10 2015-10-22 Wily Werewolf
16.04 LTS 2016-04-21 Xenial Xerus
16.10 2016-10-13 Yakkety Yak
17.04 2017-04-13 Zesty Zapus
17.10 2017-10-19 Artful Aardvark
18.04 LTS 2018-04-26 Bionic Beaver
18.10 2018-10-18 Cosmic Cuttlefish
19.04 2019-04-18 Disco Dingo
19.10 2019-10-17 Eoan Ermine
20.04 LTS 2020-04-23 Focal Fossa
20.10 2020-10-22 Groovy Gorilla
21.04 2021-04-22 Hirsute Hippo
21.10 2021-10-14 Impish Indri
22.04 LTS 2022-04-21 Jammy Jellyfish
22.10 2022-10-21 Kinetic Kudu
23.04 2023-04-20 Lunar Lobster
23.10 2023-10-17 Mantic Minotaur
24.04 LTS 2024-04-25 Noble Numbat
Active Xubuntu-based distributions
  1. DEFT Linux, (DEFT is acronym for Digital Evidence & Forensic Toolkit)
  2. Linux Kodachi
  3. Focus Point Linux: Is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Xubuntu, with Xfce4, designed for Photographers, professional or amateurs/hobbyists.
  4. Ufficio Zero
Discontinued Xubuntu-based distributions
  1. Enso OS
  2. ChaletOS
  3. GalliumOS
  4. tuxtrans (tuxtrans was a Desktop GNU/Linux System developed for translators on the basis of the widely used distribution Ubuntu, more specifically the version with the XFCE desktop called Xubuntu. tuxtrans was active for 14 years from 2007-2021.)
  5. OzOS (an Enlightenment, e17 build from CVS, LiveCD GNU/Linux distribution, initially based on Ubuntu, then Xubuntu 8.04, OzOs 0.9 release).


Lubuntu

Lubuntu is lightweight GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu.

Uses the LXQt desktop environment in place of Ubuntu's GNOME desktop.

Lubuntu was originally touted as being "lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient", but now aims to be "a functional yet modular distribution focused on getting out of the way and letting users use their computer".

Lubuntu originally used the LXDE desktop, but moved to the LXQt desktop with the release of Lubuntu 18.10 in October 2018, due to the slow development of LXDE, losing support for GTK 2 as well as the more active and stable LXQt development without GNOME dependencies.

The name Lubuntu is a portmanteau of LXQt and Ubuntu. The LXQt name derives from the merger of the LXDE and Razor-qt projects.

Lubuntu received official recognition as a formal member of the Ubuntu family on 11 May 2011, commencing with Lubuntu 11.10, which was released on 13 October 2011.

History
  • The LXDE desktop was first made available for Ubuntu in October 2008, with the release of Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex. These early versions of Lubuntu, including 8.10, 9.04 and 9.10, were not available as separate ISO image downloads, and could only be installed on Ubuntu as separate lubuntu-desktop packages from the Ubuntu repositories.
  • LXDE can also be retroactively installed in earlier Ubuntu versions,
  • In February 2009, Mark Shuttleworth invited the LXDE project to become a self-maintained project within the Ubuntu community, with the aim of leading to a dedicated new official Ubuntu derivative to be called Lubuntu.
  • In March 2009, the Lubuntu project was started on Launchpad by Mario Behling, including an early project logo. The project also established an official Ubuntu wiki project page, that includes listings of applications, packages, and components.
  • In August 2009, the first test ISO was released as a Live CD, with no installation option.
  • Initial testing in September 2009 by Linux Magazine reviewer Christopher Smart showed that Lubuntu's RAM usage was about half of that of Xubuntu and Ubuntu on a normal installation and desktop use, and two-thirds less on live CD use.
  • In 2014, the project announced that the GTK+-based LXDE and Qt-based Razor-qt would be merging into the new Qt-based LXQt desktop and that Lubuntu would consequently be moving to LXQt. The transition was completed with the release of Lubuntu 18.10 in October 2018, the first regular release to employ the LXQt desktop.
  • Lenny became Lubuntu's mascot in 2014.
  • During the 2018 transition to becoming LXQt-based, the aim of Lubuntu was re-thought by the development team. It had previously been intended for users with older computers, typically ten years old or newer, but with the introduction of Windows Vista PCs, older computers gained faster processors and much more RAM, and by 2018, ten-year-old computers remained much more capable than had been the case five years earlier. As a result, the Lubuntu development team, under Simon Quigley, decided to change the focus to emphasize a well-documented distribution, based on LXQt "to give users a functional yet modular experience", that is lightweight by default and available in any language. The developers also decided to stop recommending minimum system requirements after the 18.04 LTS release.
  • In January 2019, the developers formed the Lubuntu Council, a new body to formalize their previous organization, with its own written constitution.

Active Lubuntu-based distributions
  1. DragonOS]: Is a GNU/linux distribution out-of-the-box Lubuntu based x86_64 operating systems for anyone interested in software defined radios.
  2. Linux: LXLE is a GNU/Linux distribution based Lubuntu LTS release, using the LXDE desktop environment. LXLE is a lightweight distro, with a focus on visual aesthetics, that works well on both old and new hardware. It is designed to be a drop-in and go OS, primarily for aging computers. Its intention is to be able to install it on any computer and be relatively done after install. At times removing unwanted programs or features is easier than configuring for a day. In short, LXLE is an eclectic respin[8] of Lubuntu with its own user support.
  3. OSGeoLive
Discontinued Lubuntu-based distributions
  1. All in One (AiO) - System Rescue Toolkit: Is a discontinued LiveCD desktop distribution designed to rescue systems, recover files and reset Windows passwords. AIO is based on Lubuntu and ships with several rescue utilities for use by repair technicians and system administrations.
Lubuntu Releases History
Version Release date Code name
8.10 2008-10-30 Intrepid Ibex
9.04 2009-04-23 Jaunty Jackalope
9.10 2009-10-30 Karmic Koala
10.04 LTS 2010-04-29 Lucid Lynx
10.10 2010-10-10 Maverick Meerkat
11.04 2011-04-28 Natty Narwhal
11.10 2011-10-12 Oneiric Ocelot
12.04 LTS 2012-04-25 Precise Pangolin
12.10 2012-10-18 Quantal Quetzal
13.04 2013-04-25 Raring Ringtail
13.10 2013-10-17 Saucy Salamander
14.04 LTS 2014-04-17 Trusty Tahr
14.10 2014-10-23 Utopic Unicorn
15.04 2015-04-23 Vivid Vervet
15.10 2015-10-22 Wily Werewolf
16.04 LTS 2016-04-21 Xenial Xerus
16.10 2016-10-13 Yakkety Yak
17.04 2017-04-13 Zesty Zapus
17.10 2017-10-19 Artful Aardvark
18.04 LTS 2018-04-26 Bionic Beaver
18.10 2018-10-18 Cosmic Cuttlefish
19.04 2019-04-18 Disco Dingo
19.10 2019-10-17 Eoan Ermine
20.04 LTS 2020-04-23 Focal Fossa
20.10 2020-10-22 Groovy Gorilla
21.04 2021-04-22 Hirsute Hippo
21.10 2021-10-14 Impish Indri
22.04 LTS 2022-04-21 Jammy Jellyfish
22.10 2022-10-21 Kinetic Kudu
23.04 2023-04-20 Lunar Lobster
23.10 2023-10-17 Mantic Minotaur
24.04 LTS 2024-04-25 Noble Numbat

KDE neon

KDE neon is a GNU/Linux distribution developed by KDE based on Ubuntu long-term support (LTS) releases, with additional software repositories containing the latest versions of the KDE Plasma 5 desktop environment/framework, Qt 5 toolkit and other compatible KDE software.

It is offered in stable and development variants; the User Edition is a stable release featuring the latest KDE packages that have passed their quality assurance, while the Testing, Unstable, and Developer Edition branches use the latest beta and unstable nightly releases of KDE packages (the last of which bundled with KDE development libraries and headers).


Active KDE neon-based distributions
  1. LliureX, (originally based on Edubuntu)
Discontinued KDE neon based distributions
  1. Maui Linux
Differences between KDE neon and Kubuntu
  • Kubuntu maintains stable releases and LTS version of Ubuntu.
  • KDE neon focuses on updating developer editions of KDE applications without maintaining stable releases of Ubuntu unless the root user actively chooses to upgrade their systems.
  • KDE neon forces the user to update the distro with PackageKit package instead of Advanced Packaging Tool.
KDE neon Kubuntu (stable version) Kubuntu LTS
Base system Ubuntu LTS Ubuntu (stable) Ubuntu LTS
Plasma & KDE applications Last version Stable version LTS version
KDE neon releases history
Version /
Release date
Description
5.6
08/06/2016
Based on Ubuntu 16.04 base, using Plasma 5.6. This was the first version of KDE neon considered a general release.
5.13
26/09/2018
neon 5.13 was the first version built both on Ubuntu 16.04 and on 18.04. It was released in June 2018 based only on Ubuntu 16.04, but early tests based on 18.04 were made available in August. The user edition was made upgradeable to 18.04 in September, and in early 2019 the Ubuntu 16.04 based build was discontinued.
5.15
12/02/2019
Alongside the 5.15.0 release of KDE Plasma, KDE neon upgraded to version 5.15. At this point, KDE neon started making KDE applications available in Snap (package manager) format as well as the usual deb packages. This also helps make it easier to install the latest KDE applications on other Linux distributions without needing to upgrade other components such as KDE frameworks. KDE Neon still uses apt based packages by default, but the snap packages are built and maintained using the neon build system and their packaging is part of the neon project.
5.19
09/06/2020
After upgrading to KDE Plasma 5.19, neon began the work of porting to Ubuntu 20.04. After testing, the public release of KDE neon officially switched over to Ubuntu 20.04 on 10 August 2020.
5.20
13/10/2020
The KDE neon 5.20 was released alongside KDE Plasma in October 2020. Although this was a major release for KDE Plasma, KDE neon didn't have any major technical changes other than the version upgrade itself.
5.21
16/02/2021
The latest edition of KDE neon was released alongside KDE Plasma in February 2021. Improvements included a focus on Wayland support, a new application launcher and Plasma System Monitor, aiming to succeed KSysGuard.
5.22
09/06/2021
5.23
14/10/2021
5.24
08/02/2022
5.25
14/06/2022
5.26
11/10/2022
Base update to Ubuntu 22.04 LTS. Desktop Environment update to Plasma 5.26.
5.27
14/02/2023
Desktop Environment update to Plasma 5.27.


ChromiumOS

ChromiumOS (ex Chromium OS) is a free and open source operating system designed for running web applications and browsing the World Wide Web. It is the open-source version of ChromeOS, a GNU/Linux based operating system made by Google.

ChromiumOS is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu, using Portage package manager of Gentoo.

It is therefore a hybrid between Ubuntu and Gentoo, based on both GNU/Linux distributions.

Like ChromeOS, ChromiumOS is based on the Linux kernel, but its principal user interface is the Chromium web browser rather than the Google Chrome browser.

ChromiumOS also includes the Portage package manager, which was originally developed for Gentoo Linux.

Because ChromiumOS and ChromeOS use a browser engine for the user interface, they are oriented toward web applications rather than application software or mobile apps.

Google first published the ChromiumOS source code in late 2009.


Active ChromiumOS-based distributions
  1. ChromeOS (or chromeOS, and formerly Chrome OS), is a GNU/Linux distribution designed by Google. It is derived from the open-source ChromiumOS and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface.
  2. ChromeOS Flex


Nova

Nova is a GNU/Linux distribution initially based on Gentoo (from 1.12 to 2.0 versions), from 2009. Since 2010 (version 2.1) is based on Ubuntu; developed at the Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas by students and professors and with the participation of members of other institutions, in order to support the migration of the country to Free Software and Open Source technologies.

Nova is a cuban state-sponsored GNU/Linux distribution released on 11/02/2009 (first version 1.1.2, Baire).

Initially it was based on Gentoo (until version 2.0). Since 2010 (version 2.1) is based on Ubuntu.

In version 3.0 of 2011, 3 versions of Nova were introduced: Escritorio (Desktop), Ligero (Lightweight) and Servidor (Server).

In May 2016, discussions about a new version 6.0 were underway. However, by 2016, Distrowatch had marked Nova as discontinued. and its website, www.nova.cu had been taken down.

Nova re-entered development later, and version 8.0 was released in January-March 2022.

In early 2018, its repositories and download server (repo.nova.cu) was shut down temporarily, with users being told to switch to CentOS, after which Nova resumed development a couple months later. By early 2019, the distribution website was again active and DistroWatch listed it as under active development.


Editions

The project releases three separate editions:

  • Escritorio (for Desktops, with GNOME Shell)
  • Ligero (for Desktops, with a Nova-developed lightweight desktop called Guano)
  • Servidor (a variant for servers).

Purpose of development and use

Nova was developed to achieve "technological sovereignty and autonomy" and become the operating system for all computers in Cuba, at a time when Microsoft Windows was still the most widely used operating system in Cuba.

The Cuban government wanted to replace Windows with this system. Héctor Rodríguez, director of the Free Software Institute of the University of Information Sciences, stated that "the free software movement is closer to the ideology of the Cuban people: freedom and sovereignty above all else". Other media have suggested that Cuba developed the operating system because the U.S. embargo on Cuba made it difficult for Cubans to buy or upgrade Windows, and because the Cuban government feared possible security problems: it suspected that the U.S. government could read the source code of Microsoft software and use it against Cuba. The Cuban government suspected that the U.S. government could read the source code of Microsoft software and use it for espionage against Cuba.

Cuba plans to make Nova the dominant operating system for local computers; once the replacement is complete, 90% of computers in local offices will use the operating system. In early 2011, the University of Information Sciences and Technologies (UIST) announced that they would replace the operating system on more than 8,000 computers with Nova. As of 2011, new computers launched locally will have both Windows and Nova installed.


Nova Releases History
Version /
Codename
Release Date Based on
1.1.2
Baire
20/02/2009 Gentoo
2.0 02/12/2009 Gentoo
2.1 04/06/2010 Ubuntu
2011-beta3 12/02/1011 Ubuntu
3.0 (2011) 02/09/2011 Ubuntu 10.04 LTS
4.0 (2013) 22/03/2013 (Ligero)
07/05/2014 (Escritorio)
Ubuntu 12.04 LTS
5.0 (2015) 22/03/2015 (Ligero)
22/09/2015 (Escritorio)
Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS
5.1 21/09/2015 Ubuntu
6.0 (2018) 13/03/2018 (Ligero)
20/03/2018 (Escritorio & Servidor)
Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS
7.0 20/06/2020 Ubuntu
8.0 (2022) 18/01/2022 (Ligero)
01/03/2022 (Escritorio & Servidor)
Ubuntu
9.0 (2023) 17/05/2023 (Ligero)
02/10/2023 (Escritorio)
Ubuntu


Trisquel GNU/Linux

Trisquel GNU/Linux is a GNU/Linux-libre distribution based on Ubuntu (originally based on Debian until Trisquel GNU/Linux 1.0).

The project aims for a fully free software system without proprietary software or firmware and uses a version of Ubuntu's modified kernel, with the non-free code (binary blobs) removed.

Trisquel is listed by the Free Software Foundation as a distribution that contains only free software.


Differences with respect to Ubuntu

The main difference is the strict filter that Trisquel applies to decide which packages to distribute, approving only those that provide the four freedoms indicated by the Free Software Foundation, thus excluding all non-free software.

This commitment leads to the elimination of firmware blobs and other pieces of non-free software, as well as not supporting the installation of proprietary programs, discouraging it both in the project's forums and in the documentation.

From a practical point of view, the most visible changes are the selection of pre-installed software, the non-standard desktop configuration (using only one desktop bar instead of GNOME's default two), and the original minimalist artwork.


Name and Logo
  • The name of the project comes from the Celtic symbol trisquel, formed by three intertwined spirals.

The logo of the distribution consists of a trisquel composed of three Debian swirls, as a sign of recognition to the project on which it is based.


History

The project was born in 2004 with the sponsorship of the University of Vigo, and was officially presented in April 2005 with Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU Project, as a special guest.

It was initially developed as a Debian-based distribution, but the source repositories were changed to Ubuntu with the release of version 2.0 in the summer of 2008.

The project hosts its own repositories, which are derived from Ubuntu's main and universe, but with all proprietary software removed.

The differences include the removal of all non-free packages and the replacement of the original linux kernel with the proprietary linux-libre firmware-free version, and the addition of various packages.

On December 11, 2008, Trisquel GNU/Linux was included by the Free Software Foundation in the list of 100% free GNU/Linux distributions available on the GNU website, following the verification process to ensure the commitment of the Trisquel development team and its community to promote and distribute only 100% free software.


Editions
  • Trisquel: The standard Trisquel distribution includes the MATE desktop environment and graphical user interface (GUI), and English, Spanish and 48 other localizations, 50 in total, on a 2.6 GB live DVD image. Other translations can be downloaded if an internet connection is present during installation.
  • Trisquel Mini: Trisquel Mini is an alternative to mainline Trisquel, designed to run well on netbooks and older hardware. It uses the low-resource environment LXDE and lightweight GTK+ and X Window System alternatives to GNOME and Qt-KDE applications. The LXDE desktop only includes English and Spanish localizations, and can install from a 1.2 GB live DVD image.
  • Triskel: Triskel is another alternative to mainline Trisquel using the KDE desktop environment, available as a 2.0 GB ISO DVD live image.
  • Trisquel NetInstall: NetInstall consists of a 25MB CD iso image with just the minimal amount of software to start the installation via a text based network installer and fetch the remaining packages over the Internet.
Obsolete editions
  • Trisquel Edu: For educational centers.
  • Trisquel Pro: For small and medium-sized companies.
  • Trisquel Gamer: A community maintained edition, designed for gamers.

Trisquel GNU/Linux Releases History
Version /
Codename
Release Date Kernel Based on
0.9
Fyre
10/10/2004 Debian Unstable
0.95
Ogmios
06/03/2006 Debian Unstable
0.97
Morrigan
06/07/2006 Debian Unstable
0.99
Nemain
15/01/2007
1.0
Arianrhod
30/01/2007 Linux 2.6.18.6 Debian 4.0 (Etch)
2.0 LTS
Robur
24/07/2008 Linux 2.6.24 Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (Hardy Heron)
3.0 STS
Dwyn
08/09/2009 Linux-libre 2.6.28 Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope)
3.5 STS
Awen
22/03/2010 Linux-libre 2.6.31 Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala)
4.0 LTS
Taranis
18/09/2010 Linux-libre 2.6.32 Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx)
4.5 STS
Slaine
24/03/2011 Linux-libre 2.6.35 Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat)
5.0 STS
Dagda
17/09/2011 Linux-libre 2.6.38 Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal)
5.5 STS
Brigantia
16/94/2012 Linux-libre 3.0 Ubuntu 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot)
6.0 LTS
Toutatis
09/03/2013 Linux-libre 3.2 Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin)
7.0 LTS
Belenos
03/11/2014 Linux-libre 3.13 Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr)
8.0 LTS
Flidas
18/04/2018 Linux-libre 4.4 Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus)
9.0 LTS
Etiona
16/10/2020 Linux-libre 4.15 Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver)
10.0 LTS
Nabia
01/02/2022 Linux-libre 5.4 Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa)
11.0 LTS
Aramo
19/03/2023 Linux-libre 5.15 Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish)


Discontinued Ubuntu based distributions

  1. ABC GNU/Linux: It was a spanish GNU/Linux distribution developed by Iker Castaños Chavarri in the Department of Systems Engineering and Automation of the EUITI in Bilbao, University of the Basque Country. Spain- It was based on Ubuntu and is specialized in the automatic construction of high-performance Beowulf clusters just by booting the system in “live” mode on the frontend or by being installed on your hard drive. The nodes boot diskless via PXE. Uses as Gnome window manager. Integrates the Ganglia resource monitor. It is the first distribution that integrates all these features. A scientific article on this system has been published in the IEEE and presented at the ICAT2009 Symposium held in Sarajevo (Bosnia & Herzegovina). ABC GNU/Linux by Iker Castanos was licensed under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento 3.0 España License.
  2. AbulÉdu
  3. Adrenalinux
  4. Alinex
  5. Ankur Bangla, initially based on Mandriva Linux
  6. Arabian Linux
  7. AriOS
  8. ArtistX: ArtistX is a discontinued GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu bootable DVD containing many free multimedia software packages for audio, 2D and 3D graphics, and video production. The goal of this project is to showcase the variety of multimedia software available on the GNU/Linux platform and to enable creative individuals to accomplish their tasks with the help of Free Software. The project was active between 2006(?) and 2013. The project founder and developer was Marco Ghirlanda (from Italy). The project re-started in 2017 under new development of Brandon Quam (from USA).
  9. Asturix
  10. Aurora OS, (ex Eeebuntu, ex Ubuntu Eee; para ASUS Eee PC)
  11. BabelDisc
  12. BackTrack, before based on Slax.
  13. BackSlash Linux
  14. Baltix GNU/Linux
  15. BeaFanatIX
  16. BEE free, (ex BEEfree OS). Initially based on Linux Mint (Cinnamon) and in 2019 on KDE neon, then on Ubuntu.
  17. Bella OS
  18. Bio-Linux
  19. BlackBuntu
  20. Black Lab Linux, ex OS4 OpenLinux
  21. Bubuntu: It was a GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu, as a remix. It aims to enable users move smoothly operating system to the wonderful world of free software. It works withe French localization as default, but other, supported by Ubuntu are also available. The remix was under development between 2007 and 2009 by Rémi Vernay.
  22. Centrych OS
  23. ChaletOS
  24. Chitwanix OS
  25. ComFusion, ex Uberyl
  26. Cub Linux, ex Chromixium
  27. Debris Linux
  28. DEFT Linux (DEFT, Digital Evidence & Forensic Toolkit)
  29. Deepin, (until version 2014.3. Then based on Debian GNU/Linux)
  30. DNALinux: DNALinux is a cloud live Linux distribution, originally based on SLAX, then based on Ubuntu, and bundled with bioinformatics applications, such as EMBOSS, Primer3, and other software, and biological databases ready to use. Just spin an AWS EC2 instance.
  31. DreamStudio
  32. dyne:bolic
  33. eAR OS
  34. Easy Peasy, (ex Ubuntu Eee)
  35. Elbuntu
  36. Element OS (the last released versions 1.3 and 1.4 was based on Xubuntu, before that was based on Ubuntu with Xfce).
  37. elpicx
  38. ESUN Linux, (ex Admelix (LiveCD)), (developed at Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile)
  39. ExTiX,(until version 22.12). Previously based on Ubuntu
  40. Fluxbuntu
  41. Galinux
  42. GnackTrack
  43. gOS
  44. Guadalinex, Initially based on Debian GNU/Linux|Debian. From version 3.0 it was based on Ubuntu
  45. Hybryde Linux
  46. Helix Linux
  47. ImpiLinux
  48. iQunix OS
  49. Jolicloud (Joli OS)
  50. Kiwi Linux
  51. Klikit-Linux
  52. Kuki Linux
  53. Kurumin Linux
  54. KXStudio
  55. Leeenux
  56. LinuxTLE, (initially based on Red Hat Linux and Fedora. Since version 8.0 based on Ubuntu)
  57. Linux Caixa Mágica, (initially based on SUSE Linux, then on Mandriva Linux. Since version 16 based on Ubuntu).
  58. LuninuX OS
  59. Madbox Linux
  60. Mangaka Linux
  61. Maryan Linux
  62. MIKO GNYO/Linux
  63. Masonux
  64. Molinux
  65. Monomaxos
  66. MoonOS
  67. Mythbuntu
  68. NexetaOS
  69. nUbuntu
  70. OpenGeu (ex Geubuntu)
  71. OpenLX
  72. Otakux
  73. Oz Unity
  74. Peach OSI
  75. pearOS (ex Pear Linux), (until version 2022.08, then based on Arch Linux)
  76. Pinguy OS
  77. Pioneer Linux
  78. Poseidon Linux, (previously based on Kurumin
  79. Progex
  80. Protech
  81. Puredyne
  82. Sabily, (ex Ubuntu Muslim Edition)
  83. Shift Linux
  84. Snowlinux
  85. Super OS, (ex Super Ubuntu)
  86. SuperX
  87. Suriyan
  88. Swecha
  89. SymphonyOS, (ex Symphony OS): It was a GNU/Linux Distribution created by Ryan Quinn and Jason Spisak that included the Mezzo desktop environment. Symphony's first release was based on Knoppix. Since its May 2006 release, it changed its base to Debian unstable, offering a working installer. For the next release, Symphony OS 2007, it was based on Ubuntu 7.04. Symphony also included its own Firefox-style web browser, called Orchestra. Symphony OS used a package system that used the *.sym format. At the end of June 2011, the project resumed for a short period, the switch from Mezzo Desktop to GNOME was announced
  90. Tilix Linux
  91. TrentaOS
  92. Tuquito
  93. Qimo 4 Kids
  94. UberStudent
  95. UbuntuEd
  96. Ubuntu GNOME (ex Ubuntu GNOME Remix)
  97. Ubuntu Rescue Remix
  98. Ubuntu Satanic Edition
  99. U-lite, (ex Ubuntulite)
  100. Ulteo Open Virtual Desktop, (created by Gaël Duval, founder of Mandrake Linux, and co-founder of MandrakeSoft)
  101. Ultimate Edition (previously Ubuntu Ultimate Edition): Is a GNU/Linux distribution remix, initially based on Ubuntu, and from 2022 based on Arch Linux (Ultimate Arch).
  102. UTUTO GNU/Linux, (based on Gentoo Linux before the 2017 release).
  103. Vinux
  104. wattOS
  105. Xfld
  106. xPUD
  107. ZevenOS


Adrenalinux

Adrenalinux Adrenalinux was initially a LiveCD GNU/Linux distribution operating system, based on Slackware and Slax, developed originally by professor and programmer Hugo Martín Orellano, from the Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina.

It had an intuitive desktop environment with popular applications such as Firefox and KOffice. Adrenalinux could be run from a CD without the need to install it.

It stood out for consuming very few resources and for its simplicity of use, being an installable LiveCD, with updated software and wizards to facilitate the basic administration of the system and installation of packages, without leaving aside the security and stability that characterize Slackware-derived systems.


Change of base to Ubuntu: With the subsequent incorporation of Bruno Russo (since 2006), and after a period of inactivity of two years since 2008, Adrenalinux changed its base to Ubuntu (Adrenalinux 2010.0).


Versions
  • Desktop
  • AdrenaROR: Oriented to programming on Ruby On Rails.
  • AdrEAD: Oriented exclusively to teachers and students involved in distance education..
  • AdrenaLX: Based on Ubuntu and LXDE.

Requirements

The system did not need a powerful PC to work, only a Pentium II or similar PC with 128 MB of RAM (256 MB recommended).



References

  1. / Ubuntu / - Announcing Ubuntu 4.10 "The Warty Warthog Release"
  2. / Martine OS / - Martine OS website
  3. / Ubuntu Desktop / - Pack Ubuntu DesktopPack website
  4. /Linux Mint/ 1.0 beta
  5. /Linux Mint/ 2.0
  6. MGSE: Mint GNOME 3 Shell Extensions; providing a desktop environment similar to GNOME 2
  7. /Linux Mint Debian/ - Linux Mint Debian 201403 released!
  8. A respin is a remastered version of a major Linux distro tailored for a specific purpose or group.